Rhagor - darganfod byd o gasgliadau

Cofio'r Bois Bevin yn yr Ail Rhyfel y Byd

Y ffrynt danddaear

[delwedd: Bathodyn poced Cymdeithas y Bechgyn Bevin.]

Bathodyn poced Cymdeithas y Bechgyn Bevin.

Dydy stori'r Bois Bevin ddim yn un cyfarwydd. Ni chafodd y dynion di-ri hynny a dreuliodd y rhyfel ar y 'ffrynt danddaear' eu cydnabod am bron i hanner canrif.

Pan gyhoeddwyd y rhyfel ym 1939, ymunodd miloedd o lowyr profiadol â'r lluoedd arfog, neu drosglwyddo i'r 'diwydiannau rhyfel' oedd yn talu'n well. Erbyn canol 1943 roedd mwy na 36,000 o ddynion wedi gadael y diwydiant glo. Penderfynodd llywodraeth Prydain fod angen tua 40,000 o ddynion i gymryd eu lle.

Ernest Bevin

[delwedd: Bois Bevin]

Bois Bevin o de Cymru

Ym mis Rhagfyr 1943, creodd Ernest Bevin, y Gweinidog dros Lafur a Gwasanaeth Gwladol, gynllun oedd yn cynnwys cynnal balot i anfon cyfran o'r dynion oedd yn cael eu galw i wasanaethu i'r pyllau glo yn lle'r lluoedd arfog. Byddai deg rhif yn mynd i'r het bob mis a dau'n cael eu tynnu. Os oedd rhif cofrestru Gwasanaeth Gwladol dyn yn gorffen gyda'r ddau rif yna, fe fyddai'n mynd i weithio yn y diwydiant glo. Dechreuodd y dynion hyn gael eu galw'n 'Bois Bevin'

Cosb

[delwedd: Baner goffa'r Bechgyn Bevin.]

Baner goffa'r Bechgyn Bevin.

Yn ogystal â'r rhai a gafodd eu dewis yn y balot, roedd yna wirfoddolwyr hefyd. Roedd y dynion yma wedi gwirfoddoli i wasanaethu yn y pyllau glo yn hytrach na'r lluoedd arfog. Rhwng 1943 a 1948, cafodd 48,000 o ddynion ifanc eu galw i'r Gwasanaeth Gwladol mewn swyddi ym mhyllau glo Prydain. Yn groes i'r gred gyffredin ar y pryd, dim ond 41 ohonyn nhw oedd yn wrthwynebwyr cydwybodol.

Roedd Bois Bevin yn dod o bob dosbarth cymdeithasol a phob rhan o Brydain - nid dim ond yr ardaloedd glofaol. Rhyw wybodaeth ddigon niwlog oedd gan lawer ohonyn nhw am y diwydiant glo cyn cael eu drafftio. Roedd y rhan fwyaf wedi gosod eu bryd ar yrfa yn y lluoedd arfog ac roedd yn gas ganddyn nhw gael eu hanfon i'r glofeydd.

Roedd y dynion oedd yn gwrthod mynd i'r diwydiant glo'n cael eu cosbi. Ym mis Ebrill 1944, dywedodd Gwarcheidwad y Glofeydd fod 135 o ddynion y balot wedi cael eu herlyn am fethu ag ufuddhau i'r gorchymyn llafur uniongyrchol. Aeth 32 i'r carchar, er bod 19 wedi cael eu rhyddhau yn y pen draw ar ôl cytuno i fynd i weithio i'r diwydiant glo.

Ciab a rhaw

[delwedd: Ceffyl pwll wedi ymddeol gyda dau Fachgen Bevin yn yr aduniad blynyddol yng ngerddi Trentham, Stoke on Trent.]

Ceffyl pwll wedi ymddeol gyda dau Fachgen Bevin yn yr aduniad blynyddol yng ngerddi Trentham, Stoke on Trent.

Yn wahanol i'r glowyr cyffredin, oedd yn gwisgo'u dillad eu hunain, roedd Bois Bevin yn cael oferôl, helmed ddiogelwch ac esgidiau gwaith. Ond roedden nhw'n gorfod talu am eu hoffer eu hunain ac ambell un yn cwyno nad oedd y milwyr yn gorfod prynu eu drylliau eu hunain, felly pam ddylen nhw orfod talu am gaib a rhaw!

Dim ond cyfran fach o Fois Bevin gafodd eu cyflogi i dorri glo ar y ffas, er bod rhai'n helpu'r glowyr i lenwi dramiau. Roedd y rhan fwyaf yn gwneud gwaith cynnal-a-chadw ar yr hewlydd tanddaear, yn clymu ac yn datod dramiau neu'n rheoli symudiadau'r cludiant tanddaear. Byddai nifer fach oedd wedi cael profiad o waith trydan neu waith peiriannu'n gwneud gwaith tebyg yn y glofeydd.

Ym 1943, roedd un o bob pedwar glöwr yn cael ei ladd neu ei anafu, ac roedd cael eich cyflogi i gludo glo neu offer bron mor beryglus â chynhyrchu glo ar y ffas. Roedd trin a thrafod dramiau'n dal i achosi llawer o anafiadau i'r bysedd a'r dwylo ac, yn fwy difrifol, fe allai arwain at farwolaeth pe bai rhywun yn cael ei wasgu o dan y cerbydau cyflym.

Glowyr anfodlon oedd y rhan fwyaf o Fois Bevin. Doedd ganddyn nhw fawr o ddiddordeb yn y gwaith, ac roedd gweddill y gweithwyr yn tueddu i gredu eu bod yn ddiwerth. Roedden nhw'n amhoblogaidd ymhlith teuluoedd glofaol lleol, oedd wedi gweld eu plant eu hunain yn cael eu drafftio i'r lluoedd arfog a gweld pobl o'r tu allan yn cymryd eu lle. At hynny, os nad oedd dynion ifanc mewn lifrai, fe allen nhw gael eu poeni gan y cyhoedd, a gallai'r heddlu amau eu bod nhw wedi dianc o'r fyddin neu eu bod nhw'n sbïo ar ran y gelyn. Does dim syndod bod llawer ohonyn nhw'n mynd yn absennol heb ganiatâd. Nifer fach iawn arhosodd yn y diwydiant glo ar ôl y rhyfel: roedd y rhan fwyaf ar dân eisiau rhoi'r gorau iddi.

"Demob"

[delwedd: Bechgyn Bevin yn yr Orymdaith Goffa yn Llundain ar 14 Tachwedd 2004.]

Bechgyn Bevin yn yr Orymdaith Goffa yn Llundain ar 14 Tachwedd 2004.

Daeth y balot i ben ym mis Mai 1945 a chafodd y canolfannau hyfforddi eu cau'r mis wedyn. Ers mis Ionawr 1944 roedd Oakdale wedi hyfforddi 5,615 o ddynion, ac roedd 5,400 ohonyn nhw'n dal i weithio. O'r rhain, roedd 1,465 yn wirfoddolwyr.

Cafodd yr olaf o Fois Bevin eu rhyddhau ym 1948 ond, yn wahanol i'r dynion eraill oedd wedi cael eu gorfodi i wasanaethu, doedd dim hawl ganddyn nhw i fynd nôl i'w hen swyddi. Chawson nhw ddim medal am wasanaethu, dim siwt o ddillad "demob" na hyd yn oed llythyr o ddiolch. Cafodd y cofnodion swyddogol eu dinistrio yn y 1950au, ac felly dyw Bois Bevin ddim hyd yn oed yn gallu profi eu bod wedi gwasanaethau os nad ydyn nhw wedi cadw eu dogfennau eu hunain.

Cafodd aduniad swyddogol cyntaf Bois Bevin ei gynnal yn Amgueddfa Fwyngloddio Chatterley Whitfield ym 1989 ac mae mwy wedi bod yma ac acw ers hynny. Serch hynny, dim ond ym 1995, 50 mlynedd ar ôl Diwrnod Buddugoliaeth yn Ewrop, y rhoddodd llywodraeth Prydain gydnabyddiaeth i'w gwasanaeth yn y rhyfel a chaniat´u i Fois Bevin gymryd rhan swyddogol yn y gwasanaeth ar Sul y Cofio yn Whitehall.

Am fwy o wybodaeth am y Bois Bevin, Cysylltwch â:
Warwick H Taylor, Vice President, Bevin Boys Association, 1 Rundlestone Court, Dorchester Dorset, DT1 3TN

Mae'r erthygl hon yn ffurfio rhan o lyfryn yn y gyfres Glo a gynhyrchwyd gan Big Pit Amgueddfa Lofaol Cymru.

Dyddiad yr erthygl: 3 Ionawr 2008

30 sylw

Stanley Jones ar 22 Chwefror 2014, 20:29

I worked at the Morrison Busty Colliery as an Electrician for 4 years. Being an electrician meant that from time to time I had to decide that some piece of equipment could not be used. This often angered the Overmen and Deputies to have a "Bevin lad" dictate to them. However it was I who had to sign if anything went wrong! On the whole I enjoyed the experience of working in the mines, and learned an awful lot from many of the miners who were very wise men. I see a "medal" on the internet for Bevin Boys. Those who see it should understand that it has not been authorised by the powers that be. We were given no real medal - only an inferior badge.

lynne vaughan ar 12 Chwefror 2014, 21:15

My father was a Bevin boy. He first attended the Oakdale Colliery and then went down the mines in 1944 at the Taff Merthyr Colliery. He boarded with a lady in Trelewis. Jeff Turner is my father's name he has just died and does anyone have a poem about the great work these amazing men did during the 2nd world war?

Amgueddfa Cymru ar 4 Chwefror 2014, 12:09

Dear Suzanne, you may find the following page on our website useful, it outlines the resources available on researching family members who worked in the coalfields.



http://www.museumwales.ac.uk/2326/

Graham Davies
Online Curator - Amgueddfa Cymru

Suzanne Cosgrove ar 4 Chwefror 2014, 04:20

I am trying to find information about my grandfather Sydney Walter Tabrum who was working as a Bevin Boy in South Wales. Any help appreciated

Amgueddfa Cymru ar 15 Ionawr 2014, 10:05

Dear christine jafari,
Thank you for your comment, the Museum doesn't hold records relating to mineworkers, although there are some helpful guidelines available on our 'Research Welsh Coalfields' section of our website: http://www.museumwales.ac.uk/en/2326/

Graham Davies
Online Curator - Amgueddfa Cymru

christine jafari ar 13 Ionawr 2014, 19:28

Hi can anybody help me my dad was a bevan boy John Thomas Henry Windaybank ,he died in 1974 hen I was 11 years old .I would love find out in which mine he was in if you can help please email on christinejafari@yahoo.co.uk.

Shirley Tyrell ar 10 Tachwedd 2013, 12:59

My Dad, Peter Bennett was a Bevan Boy. He is at the end on the right of the 2004 Remembrance picture. He said he would go to the parade just once for the experience but because it was such a wonderful experience he went many times. My Mum, daughter(who was only 5 at the time) and myself also went and were so proud to see him marching. We went each year making sure we were on Whitehall before 8.00 in the morning so we were right where the Queen lays the wreath. Unfortunately my Dad is no longer with us but as I laid a wreath in our village this morning I said a prayer for him and all the other Bevan Boys.

Gillian Seaward ar 10 Tachwedd 2013, 12:21

Didn't they strike for more money during the war?

poolcoolstool ar 17 Medi 2013, 05:49

great facts so cool love it

Amgueddfa Cymru ar 28 Mehefin 2013, 15:57

Hello Lorraine, Jacklyn

Thank you for the comments, and the memories.

You might be interested in the Bevin Boys issue of our GLO magazine. GLO is a People's History publication by Big Pit: National Coal Museum, in Blaenavon.

Here's the website address to read the Bevin Boys issue online:

http://issuu.com/amgueddfacymru/docs/glo_1

You can learn more about GLO and see and download all the other issues at the following address:

http://www.museumwales.ac.uk/en/rhagor/glo/

Lorraine Brooks ar 28 Mehefin 2013, 14:33

My dad was a Bevin boy, his name was Donald James Green (Don). He was working in Martins Bank at Trentham Gardens clearing house in Trentham, Staffordshire when he was called up. He had his medical was classed as A1 fit and a few weeks later received notification that he was to be sent to the pit as a Bevin boy. He worked in a few pits in Stoke on Trent, Kemball, Holditch and Hem Heath until his demob in 1949/50. He had 6 brothers who were all called up to the armed forces, but it was never seen by them that he did less for the war effort (in fact quite the opposite)
He always felt that the effort of the Bevin boys was never recognised and that it should have been. He only left the mines with a large number of blue scars!!
Sadly my dad died in 2001 from a condition associated with working in coal dust.
He didn't serve in the armed forces but he and many others certainly helped keep industry working and "the home fires burning", and I am immensely proud.
Does anyone remember him? he was from Hanford.

Jacklyn Reynolds ar 19 Mehefin 2013, 18:11

My Dad was a bevin boy and worked down in the pit. He had a few near misses with runaway carts and had to jump into alcoves along the rails to survive. I am so happy that the bevin boys were finally acknowledged.My Dad received a certificate and a medal at the age of 80. He passed away on June 19th of 2012 at the age of 86. His name was James William Gordon and I think he was in the pit somewhere near Leigh Lancashire. If anyone has any pictures or information, it would be gratefully appreciated. My e-mail is chrisreynolds07@hotmail.com Thank You.

Pauline Etherden ar 29 Hydref 2012, 08:03

I found your article very interesting. My father was a Bevin Boy and we believe he was in a pit in Yorkshire.
However, he did not talk much about it. Is there any organisation that kept a note of who worked where, although if my memory serves me well there isn't.

His name was Theodore Lionel Etherden. He was born on 18th September 1926.

I look forward to hearing from you.

Wm. K Smith ar 12 Hydref 2012, 15:30

I was conscripted to the south. Wales coal mines. First. Oak dale them britania mine at. Pengam I felt ashamed that I was not in the forces. My digs were in a little village called Fleur. De lys. Near. Bargeod four of us there in two rooms. Only one bed. One was on nights whilst the other on days so you got the bed on your own. Unfortunately my room made died of tuberculosis. And a few months later I must have contracted it unknown to me I kept working but had to take days off missing work because I could not handle a shovel. The authorities came on me like a ton of bricks. I was 18 ,didn't know I was Ill Threaten me if I didn't do better time keeping I would be put in prison. worked on until I collapesd. With double phemonia and sent back to. Blackpool. (Unfit for coal mining). No cure for TB then. Spent next three years in and out of hospital. Till 1951 I had my lung removed. Pleased to say I am now 86 and still here started a little business. Which has quietly kept my all these years. Never had a penny from the government till I got my pension. Had I been in the forces My life would have been much easier. But then. If I had been with all those brave lads. I may not have returned. Wm ( Bill ). Smith 9/10/12

alex ar 11 Hydref 2012, 15:53

good work

Gadael sylw


Geirfa

Dimôb / dimobio
Talfyriad o demobilized - sef y broses o ddarfod dyletswydd lluoedd arfog cenedl o statws brwydr, fel yn sgil buddugoliaeth mewn rhyfel.

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