Rhagor - darganfod byd o gasgliadau

Arlunydd o'r 18fed Ganrif wrth ei waith - Technegau Richard Wilson

Amgueddfa Cymru yw perchennog y casgliad mwyaf o baentiadau Richard Wilson y tu allan i Lundain, ac mae dros 20 o baentiadau yn ei storfeydd, ac ar ddangos i'r cyhoedd.

Yr Artist

[delwedd: Richard Wilson (1714-1782)]

Richard Wilson (1714-1782)

Ganed a magwyd Richard Wilson ym Mhenegoes, Sir Drefaldwyn, ac fe symudodd i Lundain ym 1729 i dderbyn hyfforddiant gan Thomas Wright fel paentiwr portreadau. Yn dilyn ei brentisiaeth ym 1735, dechreuodd gynhyrchu portreadau o eisteddwyr o Gymru a Lloegr. Ym 1750 gadawodd Lundain am Rufain, a bu yno tan 1757. Yn ystod y cyfnod hwn datblygodd sgiliau newydd fel arlunydd tirluniau yn y dull clasurol mawr, yn dilyn esiampl Poussin, Claude a Zuccarelli.

Pan ddychwelodd i Lundain fe gyflogodd nifer o brentisiaid, gyda Thomas Jones a Joseph Farington ymysg y disgyblion a oedd yn talu, ac fe fabwysiadodd y ddau ohonynt rai o arferion stiwdio Wilson.

Dros y pymtheng mlynedd nesaf cynhyrchodd nifer fawr o dirluniau Eidalaidd, Seisnig a Chymreig, gan ailadrodd droeon y testunau mwyaf poblogaidd. Yn raddol, diflannodd y farchnad am baentiadau felly, a lleihawyd ei incwm. Roedd yn un o'r aelodau a sefydlodd yr Academi Frenhinol ym 1768, a chafodd ei gyflogi ganddynt yn llyfrgellydd ar gyflog o £50 y flwyddyn. Dirywiodd ei iechyd yn raddol, ac aeth i ymddeol yng Ngholomendy, ger Yr Wyddgrug, lle bu farw ym 1782.

Techneg Paentio Portreadau

[delwedd: Portread o Foneddiges: Morwyn Anrhydeddus [Portrait of a Lady: Maid of Honour]. Richard Wilson (1714 - 1782)]

Portread o Foneddiges: Morwyn Anrhydeddus [Portrait of a Lady: Maid of Honour]. Richard Wilson (1714 - 1782)

Mae portreadau cyntaf Wilson yn dyddio o 1740-50, ac maent yn adlewyrchu chwaeth ei gyfnod. Fel arfer, darlunnir pen ac ysgwyddau unigolion o fewn hirgrwn, gyda'r cefndir addas yn adleisio dyheadau'r eisteddwyr. Roedd Wilson yn trin paent yn rhydd ac yn feistrolgar, ac mae hyn yn amlwg yn nillad ei eisteddwyr, sy'n dangos manylion y ffasneri a nodweddion addurnol eraill. Peintiai Wilson arlliwiau croen mewn tri cham. Byddai elfennau sylfaenol yr wyneb yn cael eu sefydlu trwy ddefnyddio arlliw tywyll ar gyfer lliwiau tywyll, ac arlliw golau ar gyfer lliw cnawd cyffredinol. Ar ôl i'r cyntaf sychu, byddai'r ail beintiad yn dwysáu'r lliwiau golau, gwydro'r lliwiau tywyll, ac yn ychwanegu lliw fflamgoch i'r gwefusau a'r bochau. Byddai'r peintiad olaf, neu'r trydydd, yn gyfle i wneud gwelliannau terfynol i'r gwydro.

Nodwedd neilltuol o'i bortreadau yw'r tanbaent llwyd, a adawyd heb ei orchuddio, i ffurfio arlliw canolig ar gyfer lliw croen. Mae hyn yn amlwg iawn yn y portreadau o Richard Owen (NMW A 5005) a'r Maid of Honour (NMW A 67).

Technegau Paentio Tirluniau

Penderfynodd Wilson adael portreadau a chanolbwyntio ar baentio tirluniau tra oedd yn yr Eidal. Cynhyrchwyd ei dirluniau drwy wneud tan ddarlun o baent brown yn gyntaf, cyn ychwanegu'r 'lliwiau pŵl' (dead-colouring), tasg a roddwyd i'r prentisiaid stiwdio. Ychwanegwyd haenau tenau o liw yn ystod y cam hwn; Glas Prwsiaidd a llwyd-frown ar gyfer yr awyr, a chymysgedd o bigmentau coch a glas ar gyfer y tirlun. Byddai lliw yn cael ei osod mewn trwch yn dibynnu ar y dyfnder arlliw oedd ei angen, a fyddai'n amlygu arlliw golau'r grwnd tuag at y gorwel. Ar ôl i'r lliwiau pŵl sychu, gosodwyd olew ar y darlun cyn yr ail beintiad.

Ar gyfer y blaendir, dywed Joseph Farington bod Wilson wedi 'mynd drosodd eildro, gan ddwysau pob rhan gyda lliw a dyfnhau'r cysgodion, ond yn llonydd, yn frown, yn rhydd ac yn fflat, wedi'i adael mewn cyflwr i gael ei orffen: yr hanner-arlliwiau wedi'u gosod, ond heb oleubwyntio.' Wrth beintio'r blaendir am y trydydd tro, byddai Wilson yn newid yr arlliwiau, gan ychwanegu'r eglurder angenrheidiol i'r gwahanol wrthrychau, cyn eu gwydro ag arlliwiau cyfoethog a chynnes, ac ychwanegu arlliwiau solet drostynt.

Ar y llaw arall, gweithiwyd yr awyr a'r tirlun pell yn wlyb ar baent gwlyb ar ôl cwblhau'r lliwio pŵl gwreiddiol, yn hytrach nag mewn dau gam ar wahân. Roedd hyn yn galluogi Wilson i gymysgu'r cymylau gyda glas yr awyr, gan ddefnyddio dulas yn hytrach na glas Prwsiaidd ar gyfer y cam hwn o'r peintio, mae'n debyg. Yn olaf addaswyd y gorwel a meddalwyd y pellter gyda llwydfrown eto yn ôl yr angen.

Ymarfer Arlunio

Roedd arlunio yn bwysig i Wilson, a neilltuwyd y flwyddyn gyntaf o hyfforddiant ei ddisgyblion ar gyfer arlunio, a roddai sail dda iddynt 'yn egwyddorion golau a chysgod heb gael eu dallu a'u camarwain gan gyffro lliwiau'.

Mae'r rhan fwyaf o'i luniau sydd wedi goroesi yn dyddio o'i ymweliad â'r Eidal (1750 -7). Mae'r rhain yn cynnwys astudiaethau uniongyrchol o fyd natur, a chynlluniau o'i ddychymyg ei hun. Ei hoff gyfrwng oedd sialc du a stwmp ar bapur llwyd. Defnyddiodd y lluniau hyn fel ysbrydoliaeth ar gyfer ei beintiadau olew, ond pur anaml y byddai'n eu trosi i baent yn uniongyrchol. Roedd yn ailwampio'r cynlluniau gwreiddiol hyn ac yn gwneud addasiadau cyson wrth beintio.

Yn ogystal â hyn, byddai ei liwiau wedi deillio o'i gof gweledol neu ei ddychymyg gan nad oedd yn cymeradwyo brasluniau wedi'u harlliwio, ac ni fyddai'n defnyddio dyfrlliwiau i wneud astudiaethau o fyd natur.

[delwedd: Palet Wilson yn ôl Paul Sandby o Artists and their Friends in England 1700-1799, gan Whitley. (cyhoeddwyd gan Medici Society 1928)]

Palet Wilson yn ôl Paul Sandby o Artists and their Friends in England 1700-1799, gan Whitley. (cyhoeddwyd gan Medici Society 1928)

Palet Wilson:

Cofnodwyd palet Wilson gan Joseph Farington, a oedd yn ddisgybl iddo ym 1763, ac un o'i ffrindiau, y dyfrlliwiwr Paul Sandby. Mae eu hadroddiadau'n amrywio ychydig, ond gyda'i gilydd maent yn rhoi'r amrediad o bigmentau y byddem yn disgwyl eu gweld yn ei beintiadau.

Gleision: dulas, glas Prwseg, indigo
Chochion: fermiliwn, coch golau, cochliw
Melynion: ocr melyn, melynlliw, melyn Naples, pinc-frown
Browniau: Ocr Rhufeinig, sienna llosg
Gwyrddion: terre verte
White: gwyn plwm
Black: du ifori neu asgwrn

Cipolwg:

  • 1714: Ganed yn Sir Drefaldwyn
  • 1728: Symudodd i Lundain i fwrw prentisiaeth gyda Thomas Wright
  • 1735: Daeth yn baentiwr cydnabyddedig
  • 1750: Teithiodd i Rufain i ddatblygu ei allu i baentio yn arddull Poussin, Claude a Zuccarelli
  • 1757: Dychwelodd i Lundain i hyfforddi disgyblion megis Thomas Jones a Joseph Farington
  • 1768: Aelod Sefydlu'r Academi Frenhinol
  • 1772: Fe'i penodwyd yn Llyfrgellydd yr Academi Frenhinol
  • 1782: Bu farw yn yr Wyddgrug

Dyddiad yr erthygl: 16 Ebrill 2007

15 sylw

Graham Davies ar 8 Medi 2014, 15:02

Thank you for your enquiry. I would need to see a photograph to comment on your work. Because Richard Wilson (1714-1782) is the first major British landscape painter, many Italianate views of the late C18 have been attributed to him. Yours could be a work by Wilson, but it may also be a picture by one his followers or many later imitators. Wilson usually signed with his initials ‘RW’ sometimes reversed or in monogram. Any name on the back of the painting is likely to be a later inscription.
Best wishes, Oliver Fairclough, Keeper of Art

Julie Alexander ar 2 Medi 2014, 02:32

I have a painting that was my fathers and was in our family since I was a little girl. It is a landscape painting and and has a plaque called "in ancient Italy". It is said to be painted by Richard Wilson. There is no signature on the painting itself. There is a signature on the back of the painting. We are not sure if this it is an authentic Richard Wilson painting. It is about 13.5 x 17" in size. It is very beautiful. It is currently at a gallery in Cincinnati, called Mary ran galleries. Don't think she has done much with the painting. It has been in our family for about 50 years, and we would just like some advice on the correct course of action. Thank you very much, any information would help.

Amgueddfa Cymru ar 1 Ebrill 2014, 21:21

Dear Suzanne von Pflugl
Wilson was primarily a portrait painter until he went to Italy in 1750, and it is not impossible that he may have made a few portrait miniatures in the early part of his career but none are known.

Suzanne von Pflugl ar 1 Ebrill 2014, 12:21

Did Richard Wilson ever paint miniatures?

Sara Huws ar 6 Mawrth 2014, 10:49 (Staff Amgueddfa Cymru)

Dear Mr Fiddimore

We do not formally authenticate paintings but if we are sent an image of the work we do our best to offer advice on where to go next. Not all of Richard Wilson's paintings are signed, however if you would like to send us a photo of the work, a curator from our Historic Art dept will be able to comment on it in a bit more detail. You can do so at the link: Email the Historic Art Department

Royston Fiddimore ar 23 Chwefror 2014, 16:49

Can you tell me whether Richard Wilson is known to have painted landscape of Tintern Abbey as I have a largish picture about 2 feet by 4 feet signed feintly by R Wilson which I acquired in 1960's and kept in different houses.Its now too big and unsuitable for our current house but would not like to dispose of before checking its authenticity. Many thanks

Tapan Kumar Mukherjee, Subhas Pallee, Burdwan, West Bengal, India ar 7 Ionawr 2013, 05:03

The recent Royal Academy of Art exhibition on 18th century English Landscape painting in London displays the works of Thomas Gainsborough, John Constable and Joseph MW Turner. But surprisingly the work of Richard Wilson (1714 - 1782) remains unrepresented in the exhibition, though he is justly regarded as the father of English landscape painting, and along with william Hogarth with his mastery of figurative art mainly bore the brunt of the struggle against the standards of conventional art.

Anne Pritchard ar 4 Ionawr 2012, 09:42

Dear Shelagh Noden,

Thank you for your comment on the techniques of Richard Wilson. Please could you send us digital photographs of your paintings and a note of their size (not including the frame)? We cannot authenticate works by photograph but they should help us to tell you a bit more about them. Any other information, such as how your mother might have come to have them, would also be of interest. Please direct information to Anne Pritchard using the following address: art@museumwales.ac.uk


Anne Pritchard
Assistant Curator of Historic Art

Shelagh Noden ar 19 Rhagfyr 2011, 16:19

Hello
We have found a painting at my mother's house in Lancashire, signed R Wilson RA. It looks very like other examples of his work that we have seen; a dramatic landscape that we at first thought to be a Lake District scene. There is another similar but unsigned painting.
What should we do?

Thanks

Shelagh Noden

Amgueddfa Cymru ar 23 Tachwedd 2010, 11:52

Dear Judith - thank you for your suggestions, a link to a list of works we hold by Richard Wilson has now been included in the article above, and we also hope to append a list of Wilson drawings and engravings after paintings in the near future.

judith.hodgkinson@o2.co.uk ar 22 Tachwedd 2010, 16:00

A list of your holdings of Wilson paintings, drawings, engravings after his paintings &c would be useful, attached to this article. I am supposing that the writer knows this, so it would be comparatively easy for them to do.

Glenn Morris ar 19 Hydref 2010, 09:56

It's great to have this useful information on-line permanently. Please don't remove it.

Carol Hawk ar 9 Ebrill 2009, 15:08

I purchased a canvas copy of one of Richard Wilsons paintings. The number of the painting is 787 out of 2000. I am not sure of the name of the painting because the certificate of quarantee is printd in Italian. It could possibly be Firenze, Le Cascine. The printing above this name says La tiratura di questo soggetto, di cm. 100 x 62 circa. The painting is a Italian country side with a man and woman standing next to a river with a sail boat on the river. I was wondering if someone in your compandy could give me any inforation on this painting and the value of this copy.
Carol Hawk

Gareth Morse ar 9 Ebrill 2009, 15:06

Critical comments on his ' Italian landscapes' - by his contemporaries and by modern scholars and critics would be valuable here.
Is there a major publication - produced perhaps by the University of Wales [ there ought to be ! ] to which I can refer.
Gareth Morse Welsh UK and for many years Australian landscape painter
Refer Diane McCusker Gallows Gallery, Mosman Park Perth Western Australia 6012

Gareth Morse /garethmorse @netspace.net.au ar 3 Tachwedd 2008, 12:14

It would have been useful to have had some commentary on the quality of his drawing - drawing after all informed the basis of his work allied to his fluency with paint. Also perhaps there is too much concern with the matter of ' influences' since at the point of painting, creating the Forms of the landscape with a freedom of painterly usage is one which he readily anticipated.
Ultimately , of course, his vision belonged, singularly to him. Diolch.

Gadael sylw


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Carmin
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Erthygl gwreiddiol

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