Rhagor - darganfod byd o gasgliadau

Cartref parhaol ar gyfer tŷ dros dro: y pre-fab yn Sain Ffagan

Dinistriwyd miloedd o gartrefi Prydeinig gan fomiau yn ystod yr Ail Ryfel Byd (1939-45). Nid oedd modd eu hailgodi oherwydd prinder adeiladwyr a deunyddiau. Ym 1944 cyflwynodd Winston Churchill y Rhaglen Tai Dros Dro fel rhan o ymdrech Prydain i ailadeiladu ar ôl y rhyfel. Y nod oedd darparu hanner miliwn o dai argyfwng, a fyddai'n para pymtheg mlynedd.

Y tai pre-fab cyntaf

[delwedd: Prototeip o dŷ pre-fab alwminiwm yn cael ei godi, yn barod i'w arddangos, y tu allan i'r Tate Gallery yn Llundain, 1945. Hawlfraint y Goron NMR]

Prototeip o dŷ pre-fab alwminiwm yn cael ei godi, yn barod i'w arddangos, y tu allan i'r Tate Gallery yn Llundain, 1945. Hawlfraint y Goron NMR

Roedd gan y tai parod neu'r tai 'pre-fab' bedwar cynllun safonol: dau gynllun o fframiau pren (y Tarran a'r Uni-Seco), un o ffrâm ddur â phaneli asbestos (yr Arcon), a'r pre-fab Alwminiwm, wedi'i wneud o weddillion deunyddiau adeiladu awyrennau. Dangoswyd esiamplau o'r rhain yn y Tate Gallery yn ystod 1944-5.

Y nod oedd gwneud cymaint â phosibl gyda'r adnoddau prin oedd ar gael, a fedrai gael eu masgynhyrchu a'u hadeiladu'n gyflym.

I ddechrau, cafwyd ymateb cymysg. Roedd rhai o'r farn bod tai pre-fab yn wastraff arian a ddylai fod wedi cael ei wario ar dai parhaol. Wrth i glystyrau o'r tai pre-fab godi ar hyd a lled y wlad, mynegwyd pryderon ynglŷn â'u hymddangosiad. Erbyn diwedd y prosiect ym 1949 dim ond 156,623 o dai pre-fab a godwyd o'r hanner miliwn arfaethedig. O'r cyfanswm hwn, codwyd 7,600 ohonynt yng Nghymru.

Tai addas i arwyr?

Roedd rhai o'r farn bod y tai pre-fab yn hyll a digymeriad, ac ofnent y byddent yn troi'n slymiau a fyddai'n bell iawn o fod yn dai addas ar gyfer arwyr, fel yr addawyd.

Fodd bynnag, o ganlyniad i safon uchel y cynllunio, fe barodd nifer ohonynt yn llawer hirach na'r disgwyl. Daethant i fod yn dai i'w trysori, a gofalwyd amdanynt gyda gofal a pharch.

Yr Amgueddfa'n achub pre-fab Alwminiwm

[delwedd: Rhai o dai pre-fab Llandinam Crescent, yn aros i gael eu dymchwel]

Rhai o dai pre-fab Llandinam Crescent, yn aros i gael eu dymchwel.

Hanner can mlynedd yn ddiweddarach, roedd olion cyrydu sylweddol ar yr ychydig dai pre-fab oedd wedi goroesi, ac ym 1998 cynigiodd Cyngor Sir Caerdydd un o'r tai pre-fab o Llandinam Crescent, Caerdydd, a oedd ar fin cael ei ddymchwel, i Amgueddfa Cymru. Ar un adeg dyma oedd y math mwyaf cyffredin o dŷ pre-fab i gael ei adeiladu ym Mhrydain, ond bellach mae'r rhan fwyaf ohonynt wedi'u dymchwel. Mae'n bosibl mai'r esiampl a ailgodwyd yn Sain Ffagan fydd yr unig un ar ôl yng Nghymru gyfan.

Wrth ei adeiladu, gosodwyd pob rhan o'r tŷ yn llawn, gan gynnwys yr holl wifrau trydanol, y pibellau nwy a'r gwaith plymio. Doedd ond angen bolltio'r tŷ at ei gilydd, selio'r uniadau a gosod y lloriau cyn bod modd i'r deiliaid symud i mewn. Nodwedd mwyaf datblygedig y tai pre-fab oedd y tân glo â boeler cefn a gynhesai'r dŵr gan gylchredeg aer cynnes i'r ystafelloedd gwely. Adeiladwyd unedau'r ystafell ymolchi a'r gegin gefn wrth gefn er mwyn arbed lle.

[delwedd: Yr Uned Adeiladau Hanesyddol yn datgymalu'r pre-fab yn Llandinam Crescent yn Nhachwedd 1998.]

Yr Uned Adeiladau Hanesyddol yn datgymalu'r pre-fab yn Llandinam Crescent yn Nhachwedd 1998.

Oherwydd symlrwydd yr adeilad, datgymalwyd y tŷ mewn un bore.

Penderfynodd yr Amgueddfa arddangos y pre-fab fel y byddai wedi edrych oddeutu 1950. Er iddo gael ei adeiladu ym 1948, mae dewis y dyddiad hwn wedi'n galluogi i ddehongli gardd mwy datblygedig a'r ymdeimlad o gymdeithas oedd wedi datblygu yn y stryd. Roedd 1950 yn ddechrau cyfnod o optimistiaeth newydd yn dilyn y rhyfel, ac adlewyrchwyd hyn mewn cynlluniau newydd ar gyfer celfi a nwyddau'r cartref. Serch hynny, roedd yn gyfnod o ddioddef effeithiau'r rhyfel a'i ganlyniadau, ac roedd yn rhaid gwneud y gorau o'r hyn a oedd gennych. Mae'r pre-fab a godwyd yn Sain Fagan felly'n symbol o gyfnod o newid mawr yng Nghymru, yn pontio rhwng hen ffyrdd o fyw a'r newydd.

Dyddiad yr erthygl: 18 Ionawr 2009

12 sylw

john schofield ar 23 Mawrth 2014, 18:41

I had a tarran type prefab that I purchased from Manchester corporation to use as a workshop When it was dismantled Ifound the wooden perimeter base that the concrete panels sit on had dry rot and on re assembly had to be renewed .This would cause subsidence if not attended to, the weight of the panel would crush the timber

Peter ar 23 Rhagfyr 2013, 07:58

I lived in a b2 prefab in Hatfield Hertfordshire from when I was born in 1954 till 1966.The coal fire stove was brown could you tell me what company made these stoves and the model. I will be grateful for any help given.
Regards Peter.

paul nickel ar 4 Rhagfyr 2011, 03:17

would it be possible to add a scaled plan on the website, thanks

A. Alshawesh ar 1 Chwefror 2010, 09:36

We are a Libyan construction company.
We have got two new projects here in Libya now days
And we will be very happy to know more about your prefabricated homes including your prices and we will need your advice in this field
More details:
* we prefer to get 3 size and design of single home or suite and our perfect area not more than 485 SF cause we need to collect 3 deferent size and 3 deferent design for 3 levels (one for VIP , engineers and workers for example)
* that's our first project and it's a modern camp for rental as a hotel for some company here in our area and we wish it'll be for as a good smple for our costumers

Dear ar 4 Awst 2009, 11:43 (Staff Amgueddfa Cymru)

Dear Ralph - We do have a frontal image of the prefab that we have in St. Fagans. the direct link to the image is:

http://www.museumwales.ac.uk/media/4185/prefab.jpg
The caption is:"A Type B2 aluminium bungalow, built in 1947, now re-erected and displayed at the Museum of Welsh Life, St Fagans."

Many thanks for your interest in Amgueddfa Cymru

Ralph Cousins ar 4 Awst 2009, 11:39

I am writing a history of our local housing estate that had a number of 'prefabs'.
Unfortunately I do not have a frontal photograph. I wondered if you have one of yours that I might be permitted to use?
Many thanks

Mike Otterson ar 5 Mai 2009, 09:21

Congratulations for the foresight in preserving this part of British history. I lived for the first 18 years of my life in one of these post-war prefabs in Liverpool, which had the largest prefab estate in Britain. The vibrant communities that flourished in and around the prefabs were remarkable, and people were mostly reluctant to move to brick homes when the prefabs were finally demolished in the 1960s. I live in the United States now, but I'm looking forward to visiting the museum in July 2009 especially to see this prefab and re-live some memories.

John Smith ar 3 Tachwedd 2008, 12:14

I would like to build a 1/12 scale model of a prefab, is it possible to give me the overall dimentsions of a prefab.

Thank you in anticipation

[Cyfeiriad ebost wedi'i ddileu / Email address removed]

laura ar 3 Tachwedd 2008, 12:14

i live in a pre fab house thats been standing for 40 years. i feel its showing signs of subsidence but have been told that pre fabs dont subside due to the timber frame on the upper half of the house. can anyone enlighten me on wether or not this is an accurate statement,thanks

Amgueddfa Cymru ar 3 Tachwedd 2008, 12:14

Thank you for your comments

In reply to the first enquiry, the overall dimensions of the prefab are 9m x 7m (x 3.6m to the ridge)

As for the question of subsidence, it is unlikely that the structure itself would 'subside', unless the framework had become inherently unstable due to corrosion (if an aluminium house) or similar failure. What type of prefab are we talking about? (There were 4 main types, made of aluminium, timber, steel and asbestos). The other possibility is that the concrete/brick foundation has failed and that, consequently, the structure is sinking.

Diolch/Thank you,
Gerallt D. Nash
Senior Curator, Historic Buildings

elaine ar 3 Tachwedd 2008, 12:14

could you tell me the name of the prefabs in pollington also what are they constructed of?

Amgueddfa Cymru ar 3 Tachwedd 2008, 12:14

Dear Elaine, If the prefab houses in Pollington are timber framed, then they could be the 'Tarran' or the 'Uni-Seco'. Alternatively, if they are steel-framed with asbestos panels, then they could be 'Arcons' (with distinctive curved roofs and corrugated wall panels). The most popular type of prefab, were the aluminium type, known as the B2, constructed using surplus aircraft materials after the war.
There are other names for prefabs, but without knowing the exact design or construction, it is difficult to determine the exact house style you refer to.
If you wish to send a picture showing the houses to rhagor@museumwales.ac.uk then we may be able to identify the house type and construction methods.

Gadael sylw


Geirfa

Prefab
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prefab bungalow.pdf
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