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Amgueddfa Cymru

Adrian in the Amazon - part 1

Adrian Plant, 27 Mawrth 2015

I’m now in the enigmatic central Amazonian city of Manaus (of World Cup fame) situated where the white waters of the Rio Solimões converge with the inky black Rio Negro to form the Amazon proper. This is my third visit as part of a project in collaboration with my colleague José Albertino Rafael at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA) and our PhD student Josenir Câmara. Our Project is describing the diversity of a particular group of flies in the Amazon using classical taxonomic approaches and relating it to Global evolutionary and biogeographic patterns using, for example, emerging molecular-genetic methodology. In order to do this we first have had to travel to remote areas of the Amazon, collecting flies to be brought back to the labs in Manaus and Cardiff - where the hard work really starts.

On previous visits we have surveyed remote areas on the Rio Negro close to Venezuela, way up the Solimões along the Colombian and Peruvian borders as well as downstream in Amapa State between the mouth of the great river and French Guiana. During this visit we intend to leave the Brazilian Amazon behind and explore fly diversity in some of the upper reaches of the Amazon Basin in Ecuador. We are all keyed up and excited by the imminent prospect of getting out into the forest again and trying to anticipate some of the discoveries we might make.

Of course, we cannot really know exactly what we are going to find but our past experiences suggest that much of what we discover will be completely new. That is one of the great delights of being an entomologist in the tropics as the diversity of insects is so vast and our knowledge so sparse that exciting discoveries are virtually inevitable. You would have to walk around the Amazon with your eyes and mind closed not to find something totally and often bewilderingly novel!  But for the time being we must contain our excitement as we spend our time sorting the field equipment we will take with us, pouring over maps and satellite imagery and speculating about finds we might make. I can’t wait for our flight to Quito!

Diwrnod Olaf Casglu Data Tywydd!!

Penny Tomkins, 27 Mawrth 2015

Helo Cyfeillion y Gwanwyn!

Heddiw yw'r diwrnod olaf o gasglu data tywydd a'r diwrnod olaf i rannu eich holl ddata ar wefan Amgueddfa Cymru! Os wyt yn cael unrhyw drafferth anfonwch e-bost ata i neu gadewch sylwadau wrth gofnodi eich data a wnâi cysylltu â chi mo gynnar a posib!

Os ydych wedi nodi eich holl ddata tywydd a'r dyddiadau blodeuo cyntaf ar gyfer eich ysgol, yna byddwch yn ennill tystysgrifau Gwyddonydd Gwych o Amgueddfa Genedlaethol Cymru ac y Edina Trust. Mae'r rhain yn cael eu dyfarnu i gydnabod y sgiliau yr ydych wedi eu datblygu wrth gwblhau'r prosiect Bylbiau'r Gwanwyn i Ysgolion. Hoffwn ddiolch i chi am gymryd rhan.

Wyf yn drist bod y prosiect yn dod i ben. Ond rwy'n edrych ymlaen at gloddio i mewn i'r data i weld a oes unrhyw batrymau a thueddiadau ac i gymharu canlyniadau â blynyddoedd blaenorol! Wnâi anfon y canlyniadau i'ch ysgol a rhannu'r adroddiad ar-lein erbyn canol mis Mai!

Rhwy’ gobeithio eich bod i gyd wedi mwynhau'r prosiect. Nawr bod eich cipio data yn gyflawn, gallwch ddadansoddi eich cofnodion a chymharu eich canlyniadau hefo ysgolion eraill trwy ddefnyddio'r Map ar y wefan. Yna gallwch gymharu hyn â blynyddoedd blaenorol drwy edrych ar adroddiad llynedd. Tybed os byddwch yn rhagweld canlyniadau'r adroddiad eleni?

Cofiwch, mae 'na fyrddau gwahanol i ddatblygu eich sgiliau gwyddoniaeth. Os ydych wedi mwynhau'r prosiect hwn gallech barhau cadw cofnodion tywydd a rhannu eich canlyniadau ar wefan y Swyddfa Dywydd, WOW. Mae yna hefyd llawer o arbrofion gwyddonol i gael ar safleoedd addysgol fel y swyddfa MET a BBC Bitesize.

Os nad ydych blanhigyn wedi blodeuo erbyn diwedd y tymor yna gallech gymryd o adra dros y gwyliau a chofnodi'r dyddiad ar-lein pan mae'n blodeuo. Cofiwch i gymryd eich enw-defnyddiwr a chyfrinair adra gyda chi fel y gallwch gael mynediad i'r wefan!

Mae rhai ohonoch wedi rhoi gwybod bod eich planhigion heb dyfu. Mae'n ddrwg gen i glywed hyn gan fy mod yn dallt faint mo siomedig gall o fod pryd nad yw arbrawf yn mynd yn ôl y bwriad. Ond di hyn ddim yn golygu ac nad oedd yr arbrawf yn llwyddiannus! Mae'n mor bwysig a diddorol i'r ddogfen pan nad yw pethau'n digwydd ac mae o bryd mae pethau yn digwydd. Am y rheswm hwn, mae'n bwysig eich bod yn cofnodi eich canlyniadau ar wefan Amgueddfa Cymru. I wneid hyn ewch i'r adran 'cofnodion blodau' ar y wefan a dewis 'nad oedd blodyn' o'r ddewislen.

Gwyliwch y gofod hwn i weld pa ysgolion sy'n ddyfernir tystysgrifau Gwyddonydd Gwych ac sy'n ennill Taith Natur!!

Diolch i chi am eich holl waith caled Gyfeillion y Gwanwyn,

Athro’r Ardd

Sylwadau ac ymatebion:

The Blessed Sacrament Catholic Primary School: We made a bar chart of how high the crocus plants they are growing. Well they are tall. From F to professor plant. Prof P: Fantastic! Can you send me a picture of your graph? Keep up the good work Bulb Buddies.

Stanford in the Vale Gardening Club: Another week of recordings, we have had a mixture of sunny, cold and windy weather here, but still little rain! We became true scientists today watching the solar eclipse using buckets of water as a reflection. Our grounds are looking beautiful with the daffodils all in flower, swaying in the wind, and bright yellow in colour with the sun shining down on them! Pof P: What a lovely picture you paint of the daffodils! And what a fantastic way to have studied the eclipse! I didn’t think of using water, we were using a reflection method but with colanders and paper at the Museum. Keep up the good work Super Scientists.

Tongwynlais Primary School: My daffodil has still not grown. I think it has died Prof P: I’m sorry to hear that your plant hasn’t grown. Thank you for logging the information on the website, it is very important to the investigation. You really are a Super Scientist.

Coleg Powys: Sorry I sent the first measurement incorrectly. I thought it was in cm. The second measurement I have submitted is the correct one. Prof P: Thank you for spotting the mistake and rectifying it. I will delete the first entry. You are not the only one to make this mistake and we will add measurement information to the data entry page for next year!

The Blessed Sacrament Catholic Primary School: All the crocus flowers opened this week except for mine! We have been busy measuring them. I hope mine will open soon, it is still quite small. Prof P: I’m glad to hear your plants have flowered and don’t worry I’m sure the last one won’t be long now!

Rivington Foundation Primary School: It was the highest its been on Wednesday and Thursday and on Friday we were on a school trip. Prof P: Wow Rivington Primary, your temperatures were high for Wednesday and Thursday! 30°c! Your thermometer must have been in direct sunlight and it must have been a very nice day! I hope you enjoyed the weather and your school trip.

Ysgol Clocaenog: Wedi cynhesu yma wythnos yma. Prof P: Helo Ysgol Clocaenog. Rwyf yn hapus i glywed bod y tywydd yn gwella!

Bickerstaffe CE Primary School: Daffodils in the pots have been a little later than the ones planted in the ground. We were surprised by this! We are going to select 2 pots that are at a similar stage and take one of them inside to see if it speeds up. We won't be able to keep the watering the same though - have you any suggestions? We thought about putting an 'umbrella' over the outdoor pot and not watering the one indoors? Professor P: Ooo this sounds like an exciting experiment Bickerstaffe Primary! Let me know how you get on and what your findings are! As for watering the plants, you really are thinking like Super Scientists by trying to keep all variables the same except for the one you are monitoring. This is very important to maintaining fair experiments. In this case, I wouldn’t worry about watering them exactly the same. You can keep them roughly the same by looking at how moist or dry the soil is in each pot and watering them accordingly. I think you will see a difference in the plants very quickly if your classroom is nice and warm!  

The Blessed Sacrament Catholic Primary School: At last, my crocus finally flowered. It was the last one. From E. Prof P: I’m glad to hear all of your plants have flowered! Thank you for logging your flowering dates and heights.

Stanford in the Vale Primary School: Another dry week, since doing this very important investigation, we have noticed we have had very little rain this year. We would like to "Thank You" for allowing us to take part in this study, and we have really enjoyed finding out about the rain fall and taking daily temperature recordings, we spent a lovely afternoon eating ice-cream and drawing our daffodils ready to be judged! This week we have experienced sunshine, especially in the mornings, with winds picking up around lunch time! Stanford would like to wish you all a happy Easter. And we hope to take part in this investigation next year, as we are becoming experts in this field! Prof P: Hello Stanford in the Vale Primary, I should be thanking you for taking part in the project and for all your hard work! I’m glad to hear that you have enjoyed the project and that you will be applying for next year. I look forward to seeing your pictures if you are able to send them in, but the competition itself is not running this year! I will still post any pictures I receive on Twitter and on the Museum Blog. Happy Easter!

The Blessed Sacrament Catholic Primary School: Nearly all our daffodils have flowered now. There is just one bud showing but 2 do not seem to have buds. The mystery plants are growing really well. I think they are daffodils but they are smaller than our daffodils. A and F. Prof P: Hello Blessed Sacrament Catholic Primary. I’m glad to hear the mystery bulbs are growing, you are right, they are a different variety of daffodil! It’s strange that two of your daffodils don’t have buds. Could you send pictures to me? If these plants don’t flower then you can still log the details and height on the NMW website. But I’d wait a bit, they might surprise you!

Rivington Foundation Primary School: We had our first 2 flowers flower today one in the ground and one in the pot but we still have a lot more to go though. We think it took such a long time to flower because we have so many trees blocking out some of the sunlight. Prof P: Hi Rivington Foundation Primary, if your plants haven’t flowered before the holidays please take them home with you and log their flowering dates on the NMW website. If the trees were shading your plants from the sun this will have had an effect on their growth. Well done for thinking about what effects the environment is having on your plants - you really are Super Scientists.  

Ysgol Bro Eirwg: Bylbiau cudd! Rydyn ni'n credu mae cannin pedr bach sydd gennym ni! Prof P: Dda iawn Ysgol Eirwg. Maent yn amrywiaeth wahanol o gennin Pedr!

Coppull Parish Primary School: Yesterday we had strong winds. Unfortunately a wooden pallet blew onto our daffodil plot and damaged some of them before they flowered. Prof P: Hello Coppull Parish Primary. I’m sorry to hear that your plants have been damaged. If they don’t look like they will flower you can still log their heights on the Museum website and select ‘did not flower’ from the menu.

Ysgol Tal y Bont: At the end of the project we found 2 bulbs did not produce any flowers and 1 bulb produced a double flower. Prof P: Hi Ysgol Tal Y Bont. It’s interesting that some of your plants didn’t flower and exciting that one produced a double flower! Would you be able in send in pictures?

Our Lady of Peace Primary School: Thank you for letting us take the temperature and rainfall readings. We are going to miss doing it. Prof P: Hello Our Lady of the Peace Primary School. You can always apply to take part next year and continue developing the skills you have learnt from the project. You could also continue to take weather records and share them on the MET Office WOW website. Thank you for taking part and for all your hard work.

Diolch yn fawr gyfeillion y gwanwyn, oddi wrth Athro’r Ardd a babi bwlb!

Planhigion Ysgol Bryn Coch.

Planhigion Ysgol Bro Eirwg.

Solar eclipse 2015

Jana Horak, 26 Mawrth 2015

The days before Friday 20th March, had staff in the Department of Natural Sciences watching the weather forecast with great attention.  Friday 20th March 2015 was a really special day as we had the opportunity in Cardiff, weather permitting, to see a partial eclipse of the Sun. This does not happen very often, the next one won’t be until 12th August 2026. 

On the Thursday we had a great start to the celebration by hosting an evening of talks on eclipses at the Museum. These were given by Dr Chris North, Dr Rhodri Evans, Dr Mark Hannam, astronomers and physicists from Cardiff University; and we all felt much better informed as to what we knew about the sun, why an eclipse was occurring, and what eclipses tell us about gravity. Equally important was a talk by Jenni Millard, an undergraduate student but experienced astronomer, on how to view the sun safely. Having listened intently the audience were issued with free solar eclipse viewing glasses.

Friday morning and we were in luck, a perfect sunny morning and all that worry about the weather had paid off!  By 8.00 a few people had already arrived outside the Museum, by 8.20 there were many more. At 8.22 we saw the first contact of the eclipse. For a short while the sun was almost obscured by the trees in the Gorsedd Gardens, but not for long. With colleagues from Cardiff University and the Institute of Physics we provided a range of methods to view the eclipse safely. These included a solar telescope that provided the greatest detail of the sun’s surface, pinhole viewers, ranging from boxes and tubes to simple card and paper, solar viewing boxes, colanders and eclipse glasses. Most visitors had noted the warnings about safe eye protection, only a few needed reminding that two pairs of sunglasses wouldn’t do the job!

Over the 126 minutes of the eclipse from first contact of the moon until we saw the entire sun once again, over 1000 people viewed the eclipse on the Museum steps with the viewing glasses provided. In total we estimate that over this period nearly 2000 people joined the event. At one point the queue disappeared round the corner of the Museum into Park Place almost to the University! However this was a great event with a fantastic atmosphere of participation and patient queuing.

For more astronomy linked events please see Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales What’s On pages, next one is on 18th April, and for education resources check out the Museum’s partnership Down2Earth Project web site

For more information on our Eclipse 2015 activities see our Storify Story.

Rwyf newydd gychwyn fy mhedwaredd wythnos fel Prif Guradur Adeialdau Hanesyddol yma yn Sain Ffagan, a dyma fy mlog cyntaf. Archaeoleg yw fy nghefndir, ac yn bennodol, archaeoleg arbrofol.

Mae’r math yma o ymchwil archaeolegol yn arbrofi’r syniadau sydd wedi tyfu fel canlyniad o waith cloddio archaeolegol. Yn y bôn rydym yn trio codi rhywbeth a fyddai yn gadael yr un tystiolaeth a ddarganfyddwyd, os cloddiwyd yn y dyfodol. Mae hwn yn herio ein syniadau a codi mwy o gwestiynau.

Tai Crwn o'r Oes Haearn

Dros y blynyddoedd rwyf wedi adeiladu pedwar tŷ crwn wedi seilio ar archaeoleg cartrefi Oes yr Hearn. Gan bod yr archaeoleg yma yn gallu bod yn fâs iawn (ond rhyw 30cm o drwch), mae pob elfen o ail-greuad uwchben y ddaear wedi’i seilio ar waith dyfalu – ei hun wedi seilio ar y dystioilaeth sydd wedi goroesi. Fel allech ddychmygu, mae gweithio allan strwythur adeilad sydd heb yw weld mewn 2,000 o flynyddoedd yn eitha sialens, ond un boddhaol. Felly, mae gen i bleser mawr i fod yn rhan o gyweithiau arbrofol newydd yr Amgueddfa - ailgreuad o ffermdy o Oes yr Haearn, wedi ei seilio ar dystiolaeth o Fryn Eryr yn Ynys Môn, a neuadd ganoloesol Llys llywelyn, wedi ei seilio ar dystiolaeth o Llys Rhosyr, eto yn Ynys Môn.

Mae tô y ffermdy yn cael ei doi gyda gwellt ar y funud, ag yn fuan mi fydd y tŷ yn ddiddos. Mi fydd hwn yn rhyddhâd mawr gan bod glaw trwn dros y Gaeaf wedi atal y waliau clai, 1.8m o drwch i sychu mor gyflym a gobeithio. Mae waliau o glai yn gymharol anarferol gan taw waliau gwial a dŵb neu cerrig sydd wedi eu darganfod gan amlaf. Hwn fydd yr ail-greuad cyntaf o dŷ crwn o’i fath.

Llys Rhosyr - Llys Canoloesol

Mae waliau y ddau adeilad sydd o’r Llys mor uchel a fy mrest, ac mae’r saer maen yn barod i gychwyn y fframau ffenestri. Fe ddarganfyddwyd y Llys yn Ynys Môn, ac fe’i gloddiwyd rhwng 1992 ag 1996. Mae’r waliau cerrig ond yn sefyll ryw fetr o daldra. Felly, yn yr un modd a’r ffermdy, ail-greuad wedi seilio ar dystiolaeth archaeolegol yw hwn.

Mae hanes ysgrifennedig o’r cyfnod, fel ‘Brut y Tywysogion’ yn awgrymmu fod neuadd frenhinol yma, a fu yn un o Lysoedd Llywelyn ap Iorwerth yn ystod hanner cyntaf y drydedd ganrif ar ddeg. Y peth dydyn ni ddim yn gwybod gyda sicrwydd yw pa olwg oedd ar y neuadd. Mae’r wybodaeth yma wedi ei seilio ar gymhariaethau gyda neuaddau Brenhinol eraill, ag adeialdwyd yn yr un cyfnod, fel a welid yng Nghastell Conwy a Phalas yr Esgob yn Nhŷ Ddewi.

Gan fy mod yn bwriadu ysgrifennu blogiau cyson ynglyn a’r datblygiadau diweddaraf, fe wnaf anelu hefyd I amlinellu y gwaith sydd wedi digwydd hyd yn hyn, felly fydd genych fwy o syniad ô’r adeilad hynod yma, ac ein ymgeision i ddod ar Llys yn fyw unwaith eto.

To gwellt
Rhoi to gwellt spelt ar y tai crwn Oes Haearn - bron â gorffen!
Tai crwn efo to gwellt
Gorffen y gwaith toi ar y tai crwn Oes Haearn
Adeiladu Llys Rhosyr
Gwaith adeiladu Llys Rhosyr yn parhau
Seiri maen yn gweithio ar adeilad carreg
Gwaith ar agoriad y ffenestri, sy'n defnyddio technegau saer maen traddodiadol

@DyddiadurKate - Gwneud Menyn

Mared McAleavey, 25 Mawrth 2015

Yn ei dyddiadur ddoe, nododd Kate ei bod wedi 'Corddi y boreu. Modryb Erwfedig yma yn nol ymenyn.'

Roedd gwaith y llaethdy yn amlwg yn rhan ganolog o’i bywyd, a hithau’n cael ei disgrifio fel “merch ffarmwr gwaith llaethdy” yng Nghyfrifiad 1911. Dwi eisoes wedi disgrifio’n fras y broses o gorddi yn Tyhen, ond beth oedd y camau nesaf er mwyn gwneud menyn? Dyma ddyfynnu Kate unwaith eto yn disgrifio’r prosesau mewn cyfweliad hanes llafar gyda Minwel Tibbott nôl ym 1970. 

Wedi i’r menyn ffurfio, byddai Kate yn “i godi o wyneb y llaeth” gyda llaw a’i roi mewn noe, sef “fel bywlen bren fawr.” ‘Doedd dim yn cael ei wastraffu, ac unai byddai’r llaeth enwyn yn cael ei roi i’r anifeiliaid, neu byddai’r teulu yn “iwsho hwnnw i neud siot a phethe felly te, a gneud glasdwr [sef dŵr a llaeth enwyn] i fynd allan i’w yfed adag g’neud gwair … Fydde llawer iawn yn rhoi blaw’ ceirch hefyd, jesd i sgatro fo ar wyneb y can ‘n te wrth fynd â fo allan i’r cae gwair.”

I drin y menyn, roedd angen ei olchi’n lân mewn dŵr oer, “oedd raid chi ga’l y llaeth i gyd allan ne fysa fo’m yn cadw dim.” Wedi ei olchi, roedd rhaid cael gwared ar yr hylif. Yn y cyfweliad, mae Kate yn disgrifio'r hyn rwy’n ei adnabod fel clapiwr menyn, sef teclyn siâp madarch a ddefnyddid i weithio’r menyn yn y noe i gael y dŵr allan - “sgimer fydde ni’n galw beth o’ gynno ni yn i drin o’n te.”  Byddai Kate “yn gwbod yn syth” pan fo’r menyn yn barod “fydde chi’n sprinclo halen a’no fo a’i gymysgu’ o reit dda, a wedyn i godi o a neud o’n bwysi wedyn.”  Roedd ganddi “glorian i bwyso fo’n te, ‘dyn godi o, hynny o’chi’n feddwl fysa gneud pwys ‘n te a wedyn roi o mewn cwpan fenyn … ‘dyn o’dd o’n dŵad yn grwn … Roi o wedyn ar y slab carreg ‘n te, yna fydda ni’n roi’r print arno fo … Oedd pob ffarm a’i brint i hunan … Weles i ddeilen derwen, o’ hwnnw’n neis a wyddo chi mesen a’n o fo te … Welish i fuwch genno ni hefyd ryw dro … O’dda ni’n werthu o’n lleol i siop yn y pentre y rhan fwya” ac yn cyfnewid y menyn am “neges yn y siop.”

Cyfrifiad 1911 yn disgrifio Kate fel “merch ffarmwr gwaith llaethdy” © Crown Copyright Images, The National Archives.

Cyfrifiad 1911 yn disgrifio Kate fel “merch ffarmwr gwaith llaethdy” © Crown Copyright Images, The National Archives.

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