Amgueddfa Cymru

Hafan

Ers y blog diwethaf mae’r gwaith ar y safle wedi datblygu cryn dipyn. Rydym wedi gorffen y to gwellt ac mae camau olaf y gwaith tirlunio wedi dechrau. Mae banc pridd wedi’i godi o amgylch y ddau dŷ crwn i efelychu amddiffynfeydd cadarn gwreiddiol Fferm Bryn Eryr ar Ynys Môn. Adeiladwyd cysgod to glaswellt y tu ôl i’r tai a fydd yn cael ei ddefnyddio fel gweithdy awyr agored a gofod addysg ychwanegol. Mae’r waliau o ‘glom’ - sef cymysgedd o glai, isbridd a cherrig mân - yn union fel y tai crwn, ond mae’r to glaswellt yn esiampl arall o ddeunydd toi sydd bron mor hen â gwellt. Gosodwyd arwyneb cobl o flaen y tai crwn, sydd hefyd yn efelychu’r lleoliad gwreiddiol.

Yn ddiweddar rydw i wedi bod yn canolbwyntio ar ddodrefnu’r tai. Bydd y mwyaf o’r ddau yn gymharol wag (dim ond aelwyd a mainc bren yn dilyn y waliau) er mwyn ei ddefnyddio fel ystafell ddosbarth ac ardal arddangos. Mae’r tŷ llai yn dangos bywyd cartref fel yr oedd yn ystod Oes yr Haearn ac yn cynnwys dodrefn cyffredin i’r cyfnod – tân i gynhesu, gwely i gysgu, gwŷdd i greu dillad a blancedi - a cistiau pren yw storio, ynghyd a chrochan i goginio bwyd. Seiliwyd bron pob eitem ar esiamplau o’r cyfnod sydd wedi llwyddo goroesi dros 2000 o flynyddoedd. Mae’r grochan yn replica o lestr coginio copr a haearn a ganfuwyd yn Llyn Cerrig Bach, prin 25km o Bryn Eryr, ac wrth y tân bydd fersiynau syml o’r brigwrn a ganfuwyd yng Nghapel Garmon yn Sir Ddinbych. Mae’r llestri pren wedi eu seilio ar rhai a ganfuwyd ym mryngaer Breiddin ym Meirionydd tra bod y maeniau melin yn efelychu y rhai a ganfuwyd yn Bryn Eryr ei hun. Rydyn ni wedi cynhyrchu set lawn o offer trin coed yn dilyn esiamplau o fryngaerau fel Tre’r Ceiri a Castell Henllys. Mae hyd yn oed y blancedi wedi eu copïo o ddarnau o ddefnydd sydd wedi goroesi.

Gyda’r tŷ wedi ei ddodrefnu fel y byddai yn y cyfnod gallwn ni ddefnyddio’r lleoliad i ail-greu bywyd mewn tŷ crwn. Gyda chymorth crefftwyr, actorion a gwirfoddolwyr gallwn ni ddod i ddeall bywyd Oes yr Haearn yn well a helpu troi’r tŷ hwn yn gartref.

This is the summary of a talk Carolyn Graves-Brown from Swansea's Egypt Centre gave at the recent "Heritage in Turbulent Times" event at National Museum Cardiff.

Studies of Bronze Age Egyptian weapons and warfare tend concentrate on metal weapons and ignore the part played by flint. Flint is not considered as attractive as copper or gold and in a milieu which is impressed by technological progress, metal is still considered superior. However, at least until the Early New Kingdom (c. the time of Tutankhamun or 1300 BC) there is strong evidence that flint weapons were standard military issue and far from being a primitive technology they were a natural choice for both utilitarian and ideological reasons.

Despite the fact that many hundreds of artefacts were found in a possible armoury in an Egyptian fort sited in Nubia (modern Sudan) and the fact that contemporary artefacts are known from sites in Egypt, flint found on Egyptian sites is often explained away as either foreign or intrusive to New Kingdom contexts. However, in many instances flint is a good choice for weapon manufacture, particularly where a quick and ‘dirty’ fight is envisaged. Flint is sharper, arguably cheaper and often more deadly than metal. Warfare and flint also had an ideological importance, it is the ideal weapon of the sun-god Re and perfect for destroying the enemies of Egypt. I concur that metal was a component of warfare, but make a plea for the role of lithics.

National Museum Wales and Cardiff University contribute to heritage preservation. If you would like to know more about "Heritage in Turbulent Times" please follow our blog.

Ydych chi, fel finna, yn ffendio eich hunain yn troi at yr un hen ryseitiau? Mae amryw ohonynt yn rai a drosglwyddwyd drwy fy nheulu, ac a ddysgais gan fy Nain a’m Mam. Mae ‘na rhywbeth cysurus iawn amdanynt, sy’n fy atgoffa o fy mhlentyndod.

Mae gennym archif helaeth o ryseitiau yn Sain Ffagan, y mwyafrif helaeth ohonynt yn gyfarwyddiadau a drosglwyddwyd ar lafar o genhedlaeth i genhedlaeth. Casglwyd y wybodaeth drwy gyfrwng holiaduron, llythyrau a ryseitiau ysgrifenedig. Ond crynswth y casgliad yw gwaith maes Minwel Tibbott. Pan gychwynnodd yn yr Amgueddfa ym 1969, maes hollol newydd oedd astudio bwydydd traddodiadol. Sylweddolodd yn fuan nad trwy lyfrau oedd cael y wybodaeth. Teithiodd ar hyd a lled Cymru yn holi, recordio a ffilmio’r to hynaf o wragedd, y mwyafrif ohonynt yn eu hwythdegau. Roedd eu hatgofion, o’r prydau a ddysgont gan eu mamau yn mynd yn ôl i ddiwedd y 1800au.

Fel rhan o Ŵyl Fwyd Sain Ffagan eleni, a gynhelir ar y 5ed a’r 6ed o Fedi, rydym yn gofyn am eich help i ychwanegu at y casgliad hwn. Wrth i chi swatio o flaen y bocs heno ‘ma i wylio the Great British Bake Off, ystyriwch eich arlwy o ryseitiau. Pa rysáit teuluol fyddech chi’n ei rannu gyda ni? Sut ydach chi’n addasu rysieitiau traddodiadol? Oes gennych eich hoff lyfr ryseitiau rhwygedig, wedi ei orchuddio â nodiadau ychwanegol a staeniau bwyd drosto? Pa atgofion mae prydau gwahanol yn eu hennyn? Pa ryseitiau sy’n cael eu cadw ar gyfer achlysuron arbennig?

Gallwch drydar delweddau ac eich atgofion i @archifSFarchive. Fel arall dowch â nhw gyda i chi i’r Ŵyl Fwyd, ac mi nawn ni eu sganio yn Sefydliad y Gweithwyr. Os nad ydynt wedi eu nodi ar bapur, fel sy’n wir gyda chymaint o’n ffefrynnau teuluol, gallwch eu rhannu gyda ni ar y dydd.

Cadwch lygaid ar y prosiect hwn drwy ddilyn cyfrifon trydar @archifSFarchive ac @SF_Ystafelloedd a’r hashnodau #GwylFwyd #Ryseitiau.

Our second event on preservation of heritage in times of conflict is on Saturday 11th July at National Museum Cardiff, 10:00 to 17:00. Throughout the afternoon, we will again offer a series of short (15-minute) informative talks:

14:00 - Stabilizing heritage in turbulent times; what can science do? (Dr Lisa Mol, Cardiff University)

14:30 - The role of Conservators in heritage preservation. (Dr Christian Baars, Amgueddfa Cymru) 

15:00 - Authenticity, ownership and the question of restoration vs preservation vs conservation. (Jane Henderson, Cardiff University)

15:30 - Flint in Egyptian Pharaonic Warfare. (Carolyn Graves-Brown, Egypt Centre Swansea)

16:00 - War damaged monuments: memory and preservation. (Dr Toby Thacker, Cardiff University)

All talks are free of charge. The event is hosted by Amgueddfa Cymru and sponsored by Cardiff University. For further information follow our blog here, or at Cardiff University.

Museum conservators are responsible for the care of collections. This includes appropriate storage of objects, housekeeping, and maintaining the correct environmental conditions to stop, for example, books in library collections from getting mouldy. In addition, emergency preparedness is another aspect of collections care (or: preventive conservation). How important this is was recently demonstrated during a large fire that gutted an entire historic property.

The fire at Clandon Park in April 2015 was devastating. However, a large part of the objects on display in the house were rescued successfully. This was only possible because the National Trust, who owns Clandon Park, has in place extremely well organised emergency plans. When the fire broke out these plans kicked into action immediately, and a well-rehearsed cooperation with the fire service led to the salvage of hundreds of objects from the house.

The fire fighters risked their lives to salvage important cultural objects. In addition, the help from staff, volunteers and local people must not be forgotten. But the point I am trying to make is that without an emergency plan, all of those helpers may not have achieved very much.

The documentation handed over to the emergency services in case of a disaster in a historic property or museum includes information on what the most important objects are, where they are kept and how they are secured. This enables planning a salvage operation down to taking the tools required for object removal into the building; it avoids the situation where you stand in a burning room in front of the object that needs to be removed quickly only to find out you took a flat-head screwdriver, rather than the Phillips you actually needed.

Emergencies are not restricted to fires. Floods, storms, even earthquakes and acts of terrorism (for example, the attack on the Bardot, Tunisia’s National Museum) can all lead to cultural heritage being damaged. In Wales, the Assembly Government has set up an Emergency Planning Network for museums to help museums, archives and libraries prepare for emergencies. The development of a network response group provides heritage professionals to help museums, archives and libraries in the event of an emergency, and assist with salvage and recovery.

Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales has its own emergency plans which we hope will never have to be used – but it is nevertheless important to be prepared. Disaster preparation is part of the role of preventive conservators; we attempt to limit damage occurring to cultural objects in our care to keep them safe for you and future generations. This involves risk assessments, minimising risks – and being prepared for the worst to happen.

If you would like to know more about disaster prevention in museums, and heritage preservation in general, follow our blog, or Cardiff University's “Heritage in Turbulent Times” blog, and come to our free event at National Museum Cardiff on 11th July with talks on why scientists shoot with guns at building stones, restoration/preservation/conservation, flint in Egyptian Pharaonic warfare, and war-damaged monuments.

"Heritage in Turbulent Times" is a joint project between Cardiff University and Amgueddfa Cymru - National Museum Wales.