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Amgueddfa Cymru

Museums and Dust

Christian Baars, 4 Mawrth 2015

Dust, dust, dust, where ever you look! Museums are dusty places - dust is on top of shelves and underneath cupboards, it covers objects, books, specimens... Keeping our heritage in tip-top condition is a constant battle against dust.

What is dust? Dust in the atmosphere is made up of lots of tiny particles of soil, pollen, pollution, volcanic eruptions etc. Inside buildings, such as museums and your own office or home, dust is mainly bits of human (and pet) hair and skin, textile and paper fibres.

Why is dust a problem? Fresh dust, in small amounts, is not a problem other than making objects look unsightly. Over time, however, dust has a tendency to become really sticky. How often do you clean the tops of your kitchen cupboards? Only when you move houses, like most people? Then you'll know how difficult it is to remove the dust.

In addition, dust it hygroscopic - it absorbs moisture from the air. And because dust is really nutritious - just think of all those yummy skin cells - once it gets damp it is the PERFECT substrate for mould. Mould is really bad. Mould is responsible for damage to an awful lot of museum objects across the world.

Dust also attracts pest insects. They hide in dust, sometimes live of it – or the mould that grows on dust – and generally thrive in environments that are dusty, messy and neglected. There are some insects that cause a lot of damage to museum collections.

So we keep dust at bay in the museum because we want to maintain your heritage in as good a condition as possible. We are fortunate to have the support of some brilliant volunteers to help us keep the collections clean. Rachel, Vicky, Meredith and Elizabete - all students at Cardiff University's Department of Archaeology and Conservation - have just helped us clean one of the Library stores and one of the Art stores. Thank you to the volunteers for their help keeping dust, mould and insects under control in the museum.

ŵyna yn fferm Llwyn-yr-eos

Gareth Beech, 3 Mawrth 2015

Wyna yw un o amseroedd pwysicaf a phrysuraf y flwyddyn ar y fferm. Mae’n golygu oriau hir, ddydd a nos, yn gwylio dros, ac yn gofalu am y defaid, i wneud yn siwr bod eu ŵyn yn cyrraedd yn ddiogel ac yn goroesi yn y diwrnodau cyntaf. Mae ŵyn yn ffynhonnell bwysig o arian oherwydd gellir eu gwerthu ar gyfer eu cig, ac ar gyfer stoc newydd i’r ddiadell.

Mae cadw defaid yn rhan sylweddol o amaethyddiaeth yng Nghymru oherwydd eu bod yn gallu ymdopi yn dda â’r ucheldir, yr hinsawdd gwlyb ac â thir gwael. Gall defaid oroesi a ffynnu ar laswellt tiroedd uchel ac isel Cymru. Gellir cynhyrchu gwlân, cig, llaeth, crwyn a gwêr ar gyfer canhwyllau o ddefaid, a gellir defnyddio eu tail i wrteithio’r tir.

Mae’n debygol mai defaid bach, brown Soay oedd y defaid cyntaf yng Nghymru. Daethant yma gyda ffermwyr Neolithic tua 6 mil o flynyddoedd yn ôl. Daeth y Rhufeiniad â defaid o safon uwch, gyda gwynebau gwyn a gwlân main. Cadwyd y defaid ar gyfer eu gwlân yn unig. Roedd gan ffermwyr Rhufeinig enw da am gynhyrchu gwlân o safon. Trwy groesi y defaid gwyneb gwyn gyda’r defaid Soay cynhyrchwyd defaid â gwyneb brown golau, hynafiaid y defaid Cymreig gwydn sydd wedi byw ar ucheldiroedd Cymru ers dros ddwy fil o flynyddoedd.

Erbyn y Canol Oesoedd mae’n debyg bod defaid yn cael eu cadw ar gyfer eu gwlân a’u llaeth yn hytrach na’u cig. Bu gwlân yn goruchafu tan y Chwyldro Diwydiannol ond o ganlyniad i’r tŵf yn y boblogaeth yn y ddeunawfed ganrif cynyddodd y galw am gig.

Cig oedd prif gynnyrch defaid ac ŵyn yn yr ugeinfed ganrif, yn gwerthu am llawer mwy o arian na gwlân. Heddiw, cynhyrchu ŵyn tewion yw prif incwm llawer o ffermydd Cymru. Yn 2013 roedd allforion cig oen Cymreig werth £154.7 miliwn. Y cwsmer tramor mwyaf yw Ffrainc, ac yna’r Almaen. Roedd 9.74 miliwn o ddefaid ac ŵyn yng Nghymru yn 2014.

Dafydd Jacob, bugail o Ystradgynlais

Bugail ar gefn ceffyl

Ffermwr yn gyrru beic quad

Curating Molluscs

Anna Holmes, 2 Mawrth 2015

Welcome to Umberto Fiordaliso, a postgraduate student from the University of Florence who will be working at the museum for 3 months with the Erasmus Programme, which helps students to study abroad. Umberto has previous experience working on Mediterranean molluscs and will be curating the marine molluscs collected by Monterosato, part of our extensive shell collection. He will be working closely with Anna Holmes and Harriet Wood in the Invertebrate Biodiversity section to produce a published handlist on this historical collection.

Cennin Pedr ar gyfer Dydd Gŵyl Dewi

Penny Tomkins, 2 Mawrth 2015

Helo Gyfeillion y Gwanwyn,

Rwy'n gobeithio cawsoch Ddydd Gŵyl Dewi gwych ddoe!

Mae Dydd Gŵyl Dewi yn ŵyl genedlaethol yng Nghymru sy'n dathlu Dewi Sant, nawddsant Cymru. Mae hwn yn gyfnod pryd mae'r hanes a thraddodiadau Cymru yn cael eu dathlu. Mae bwydydd traddodiadol fel cawl / lobscaws a gacennau cri yn cael eu paratoi, a gwisg draddodiadol ac arwyddluniau Cymreig yn cael eu gwisgo. Mae arwyddluniau Cymreig haddurno ar ddiwrnod Gŵyl Dewi yn cynnwys y genhinen (sy'n symbol o Dewi Sant) a'r Cennin Pedr. Mae'n ddiddorol bod y gair Cymraeg am ddwy yn mor debyg!

Roeddwn i'n meddwl y byddai'n ddiddorol i'r ysgolion yn Lloegr a'r Alban i weld pa mor bwysig yw'r Cennin Pedr yng Nghymru. Oeddech chi'n dathlu Dydd Gŵyl Dewi? Os nad, a oes ddyddiau eraill yr ydych yn ei dathlu? Gallech roi gwybod i mi am y rhain yn yr adran 'sylwadau' pan fyddwch yn cofnodi data tywydd yr wythnos hon!

Edrychwch ar y lluniau isod!

Daliwch ati Gyfeillion y Gwanwyn,

Athro’r Ardd

Cennin Pedr anferth yn Amgueddfa Werin Cymru Sain Ffagan ar gyfer Dydd Gŵyl Dewi.

Blodau yn Ysgol Gynradd Llanharan!

Cennin Pedr a Chrocws porffor yn tyfu wrth ymyl Amgueddfa Genedlaethol Caerdydd.

Fy mhlanhigion!

Dyddiadau blodeuo cyntaf!

Penny Tomkins, 27 Chwefror 2015

Helo Gyfeillion y Gwanwyn,

Mae gen i newyddion cyffrous! Mae'r dyddiadau blodeuo cyntaf wedi eu cofnodi ar y wefan!

Llongyfarchiadau i Ysgol Deganwy – blodeuodd eu Crocws cyntaf nhw ar y 21ain o Chwefror, yn 90mm o uchder. Blodeuodd Crocws cyntaf Ysgol Tal Y Bont a  Ysgol Bancyfelin ar y 23ain o Chwefror yn 65mm o uchder. A blodeuodd Crocws cyntaf Ysgol Gynradd Ynysddu ar y 25ain o Chwefror yn 50mm o uchder. Maent yn disgwyl i ddau arall flodeuo unrhyw ddiwrnod nawr!

Blodeuodd planhigion Swiss Valley CP School yn gynharach fyth, dros y gwyliau hanner tymor.

Mae Silverdale St John's CE School wedi adrodd bod rhai o'r crocws gafodd eu plannu mewn teiars wedi blodeuo. Mae un yn 110mm o daldra!

A heddiw, cefais dystiolaeth ffotograffig drwy Twitter i dangos  bod Ysgol Gynradd Llanharan o leiaf dau blanhigyn Crocws sef wedi tyfu'n llawn! Gwelodd y dosbarth un ohonyn nhw ar agor heddiw!

Cofiwch gofnodi'r diwrnod blodeuo ac uchder eich planhigyn ar wefan Amgueddfa Cymru. Ond, peidiwch â gwneud hyn tan mae'r petalau yn gwbl weladwy a chofiwch fesur taldra mewn milimedrau!

Byddwn wrth fy modd yn cael lluniau o'ch blodau i’w rhoi ar wefan yr Amgueddfa a fy nhudalen Twitter. Gofynnwch i'ch athrawon i anfon y rhain ataf os yn bosib!

Hoffwn hefyd weld pa mor artistig ydych chi! Felly, mae gennyf weithgaredd i chi ei gwneud unwaith y bydd eich blodau wedi agor! Hoffwn i chi i dynnu darlun manwl o'ch planhigyn a labelu ei wahanol rannau. Mae hon yn ffordd wych o ddod i adnabod eich blodau yn well ac i weld pa mor gymhleth y gall pethau bach o'r fath fod. Mae hefyd yn ddiddorol iawn i gymharu Cennin Pedr a'r Crocws – allwch chi weld y tebygrwydd a'r gwahaniaethau? Mewn sawl ffordd mae pob blodyn yn debyg iawn, er eu bod yn edrych yn hollol wahanol ar yr olwg gyntaf!

Dyma gêm hwyliog yn ymwneud â labelu planhigion o wefan Bitesize y BBC.

Edrychaf ymlaen at weld eich lluniau.

Daliwch ati Gyfeillion y Gwanwyn,

Athro’r Ardd

Eich cwestiynau:

Stanford in the Vale Primary School: We had snow on Tuesday! Bitter cold all week. Prof P: Wow Stanford in the Vale Primary, you have had cold weather! -2 on Tuesday – burrr!

Rivington Foundation Primary School: Our daffodils in pots started sprouting last week, now between 1 and 4 cms. Daffodils in pots no sign yet. Probably too cold in the ground. Professor Plant: Hi Rivington Foundation Primary, I’m glad to hear your bulbs are sprouting! It is exciting to see how fast they grow once they start to show above the soil. Usually, the plants in the ground would grow first because they are slightly warmer than your plants in pots. But this depends on a number of things, such as how much frost you have had! I’m sure they will show themselves soon, maybe they are waiting for it to get a little warmer!


Chryston Primary School: Sorry but we were off for 3 days and sadly a bulb got squished because it is near the playground and a ball landed of top of it. The good news is the bulbs are starting to grow. Next week we will start recording the height of the bulbs. Prof P: Oh I am sorry to hear that you lost one of your bulbs! I hope you are all sharing so that no one is too upset – these things do happen! I’m glad to hear that your bulbs have started growing though! It’s interesting to document how quickly they grow, and to see that each one grows at its own pace!

Saint Anthony's Primary School: We are enjoying taking the measurements and are delighted at how well our bulbs are progressing. Prof P: Hi Saint Anthony’s Primary, I’m glad to hear you are enjoying the project. I very much enjoy studying all the weather records that are sent in. And I especially like receiving lovely comments that show me others enjoy this project as much as I do! Keep up the good work Bulb Buddies.

Glyncollen Primary School: We have had good fun so far doing spring bulbs investigation! Prof P: I’m glad you are enjoying the project Bulb Buddies! There are lots more experiments and investigations you can do if you are enjoying this one, why not have a look at the MET Office website for idea! 


Saint Anthony's Primary School: We have noticed that the temperatures have recently been rising and falling. Prof P: Hi Saint Anthony’s Primary, I’m glad to hear that you are studying and comparing your weather records. You have had a bit of a jump, from -2 on Wednesday to 11 on Thursday! Differences like this can result from taking readings at different times of day, as the temperature will be consistently lower in the morning than in the afternoon! This is why it’s important to always try to take the readings at around the same time. However, this can also result from changes in the weather. I’m guessing it was a lot sunnier and less cloudy on Thursday compared to the rest of the week!

Our Lady of Peace Primary School: We hope our bulbs flower soon. We enjoyed planting them. Prof P: I’m sure it won’t be long now Our Lady of Peace Primary! One of my Crocus plants is nearly big enough, but it will be a while yet before my other plants flower! Isn’t it interesting to see that all of our plants are developing differently even though we planted them on the same day!


Keir Hardie Memorial Primary School: We have started to see that our bulbs are starting to grow. Some of our bulbs during the extremely windy weather blew over and were nearly out of the plant box and plant pot. However, we have seen some growth in a number of our plant pots and are hoping they will grow further. For the other ones that had blew over, we replanted them just in case there is any hope. This was a few weeks ago so hopefully we will see some change. Prof P: Hi Keir Hardie Memorial Primary, you did the right thing by re-planting your bulbs. I have my fingers crossed that they will still grow for you! I’m glad to hear that some of your plants have started to grow and that you are monitoring them so closely. Keep up the good work!

Glyncollen Primary School: We have had a broken thermometer on Monday and Tuesday. Professor Plant: Hi Glyncollen Primary. I’m sorry that your thermometer wasn’t working. But I’m glad to see that you fixed it or got a new one, and that you still took your rain fall readings. Good work!  

The Blessed Sacrament Catholic Primary School: Nearly all our bulbs have shoots now the weather is a bit warmer and the mystery bulbs have buds so it looks like we may have some flowers soon. E and O. Prof P: Ooo this is exciting! Once your mystery bulbs have flowered let me know what type of plant you think they might be! Keep up the god work!

Stanford in the Vale Primary School: Another strange week with the weather....high winds, cold and heavy rain, then beautiful sunshine! Our plants in the ground look as if they could be showing signs of opening.....but the one in pots seem rather behind....so we are on constant watch! Kind Regards, Gardening Club. Prof P: Hi Stanford in the Vale Primary Gardening Club! I’m glad to hear that your plants are doing well, and that you are comparing the growth of the plants in the ground to the plants in pots. It’s very interesting that these are developing differently, can you think of reasons why this might be?

Glyncollen Primary School: Some of our spring bulbs are starting to grow and our crocus! Prof P: That’s good news Glyncollen Primary, keep a close eye on them now because they’ll grow quickly!

Prif rannau blodyn (o wefan y BBC Bitesize).

Dyma lun gwych sef wedi ei labelu'n glir a gafodd ei anfon i mi y llynedd: