Mapio Hendre'r Ywydd
Gair bach clou i sôn am y map dwi wedi ei greu, i geisio mapio tirlun Llangynhafal a thu hwnt, yn y 1500au.
Fe welwch arno adeiladau sy'n debygol o fod wedi bod yn sefyll yn y cyfnod hwnnw. Anghyflawn yw'r map ond mi fydd yn esblygu, gobeithio. I'w greu, dwi wedi cyfuno data cyhoeddus Coflein, Ordnance Survey, Archif Sain Ffagan, google a Phrosiect Dendrocronoleg Gogledd Cymru*.
Dwi'n gobeithio ychwanegu mwy o wybodaeth am ddyddiadau'r adeiladau, lluniau ohonynt ac ati, fel mae'r gwaith yn mynd yn ei flaen. Gallwch ddefnyddio'r zoom i deithio ymhellach o filltir sgwar y tŷ:
View Llangynhafal 1510 in a larger map
* Dendrocronoleg=term ffansi am ddyddio boncyff.
Tom Sharpe's Antarctic Diary
[delwedd: Mount Erberus]
[delwedd: Landing at McMurdo Sound]
Landing at McMurdo Sound
Monday 21 November
We've continued to push south, although by a rather round about route to avoid the thickest pack ice, and passed 77o south latitude.
On the western horizon we had an incredible view of the Victoria Land coast of mainland Antarctica and the Transantarctic Mountains. To the south we could see Ross Island and Mount Erebus, the most southerly active volcano on earth.
We eventually broke through into a large area of open water as we entered McMurdo Sound. As we sailed along the west coast of Ross Island, we headed for a small bay at Cape Royds and ran the ship up onto the fast ice - thick sea ice attached to the land. From there it was a short helicopter ride ashore.
A walk of a few hundred metres took us to a sheltered little cove where, protected from the winds by a ridge of glacial moraine, there stood a small wooden building. This was the base hut of Ernest Shackleton's Nimrod Expedition of 1907-1909. A major conservation project by the New Zealand Antarctic Heritage Trust has recently completed work on the hut and its contents, and they've done a magnificent job. Tins of food are still stacked on the shelves, sledges rest on the rafters, clothing and sleeping bags lie on the beds, and crates of supplies are piled against the outside wall. To stand in this hut is awe inspiring.
On this expedition, Shackleton pioneered a route which Scott would later follow through the Transantarctic Mountains, and got within 97 nautical miles of the South Pole. Although he knew he could be the first to reach the South Pole, he turned back. He realised that if they continued they would not have enough food to make it back alive.
Shackleton took several scientists with him, one of whom was a St Fagan's born geologist, T.W. Edgeworth David, then Professor of Geology in Sydney. Based at this hut, David led the first ascent of Mount Erebus, 3795 metres high, and also led another team on a long sledging journey up onto the Polar Plateau to reach the South Magnetic Pole.
We had time to see the hut and take a walk to the most southerly penguin colony in the world, on the coast around Shackleton's hut. The Adelie penguins here provided an extra source of food for the expedition.
Instead of flying back to the ship, I opted to hike back across the fast ice to retrieve some marker flags we had laid out as a walking route in case the weather turned. This is perfectly safe as long as you keep a look out for tide cracks - fissures in the ice caused by tidal movement.
Their dangers were demonstrated when my hiking companion immediately fell into one. Luckily he went down only a couple of feet. It was just as well, as he had the rescue line.
Nadolig Llawen oddi wrth Yr Athro Ardd a Bwlb Bychan!
Diolch i'r holl ysgolion sydd wedi cofnodi ac anfon eu data dros y misoedd diwethaf. Rwy'n edrych ymlaen at glywed am pan fydd y blodau yn dechrau tyfu yn y Gwanwyn!
Mae rhai ohonoch wedi adrodd am genllysg neu hyd yn oed eira! Ewch i weld eich sylwadau isod. Wythnos ddiwethaf yng Nghaerdydd, roedd gennym gryn dipyn o genllysg. Hyn wedi gwneud i mi ryfeddu, sut yn union mae cerrig cenllysg ffurfio? Roedd yr atebion gyda Derek (The Weatherman). Cliciwch yma i weld ei flog a llun o garreg genllysg mawr a oedd wedi gwmpo ger Caerdydd yn 1968. http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/walesnature/2011/12/how_hailstones_are_formed.html
Mwynhewch eich gwyliau!
Yr Athro'r Ardd
Chwilio am Gartref Hendre'r Ywydd
Dwi’n teimlo’n gartrefol, braidd, yn Hendre’r Ywydd Uchaf erbyn hyn. Mae na hogle tân coed yn y swyddfeydd a mae’n gwneud i mi deimlo’n anidding, yn edrych ymlaen at y Gwanwyn, pan gâi dreulio mwy o amser yno. Efallai eich bod wedi ymweld â Sain Ffagan droeon, ond heb dreulio llawer o amser yn yr adeilad dan sylw. Mae’n aelwyd weddol wag, yn bennaf am fod dodrefn o’r cyfnod addas yn rhy fregus i’w harddangos yn yr awyr agored. Fe ddowch o hyd i’r rheiny yn yr oriel. Yn ogystal â hyn, does dim simne ar y tŷ, sy’n ei wneud yn le anodd i weithio ynddo, ac i ymweld ag e, hyd yn oed, os nad yw’r tân yn bihafio.
Adeilad ffram-bren yw Hendre’r Ywydd, a symudwyd i'r amgueddfa yn y 1960au. Er i rywun fyw ynddo tan 1954, dwi’n gobeithio dysgu mwy am yr adeilad, a sut y defnyddiwyd ef, yn oes y Tuduriaid, gan ddefnyddio amrywiaeth o ffynonellau a sgiliau. Fe fues i’n cael modd i fyw yn coginio a dehongli yno dros yr haf and dwi’n edrych ymlaen at gael torchi llewys a phrofi sut le yw e i weithio ynddo o ddydd-i-ddydd.
Mi fydde ymroi i’r hen ffordd Duduraidd o fyw, ar yr adeg hon o’r flwyddyn o leia, yn beth annoeth i’w wneud, felly dwi am dreulio’r misoedd llwm yn archwilio cyd-destun a hanes yr adeilad.
A mae llwyth ohono. Mae ysgolheigion a haneswyr lleol wedi sgrifennu torreithiau o erthyglau am deuluoedd, adeiladau, diwydiannau a digwyddiadau Sir Ddinbych yn y cyfnod Modern Cynnar. Mae pentwr o erthyglau yn gwegian ar fy nesg, yn aros imi eu marcio â stribedi pinc a melyn. Ond rhaid dechre yn rywle. Fe benderfynais i ddod o hyd i safle gwreiddiol yr adeilad yn gyntaf oll.
Adeiladwyd Hendre’r Ywydd ym mhlwyf Llangynhafal, ger Rhuthun. Dwi’n weddol gyfarwydd â’r ardal, ond dwi erioed di gallu dweud yn sicr o ble daeth y tŷ. Dwi’n cofio gwrychoedd uchel a ffyrdd cul Dyffryn Clwyd, yn hytrach na’r hyn oedd ar yr ochr arall iddyn nhw. Yn lwcus, pan fydd yr amgueddfa’n symud adeilad, fe fyddwn ni’n creu archif am ei leoliad gwreiddiol, llawn mesuriadau, ffynonellau a mapiau. Fel arfer, maent yn gasgliadau arbennig:
Yn anffodus, yn achos Hendre’r Ywydd, gallwn weld bod mwy o ddiddordeb gan y curadur ar y pryd yn hanes a ffurf yr adeilad, yn hytrach na’r ardal a’r bobl fuodd yn byw ynddo. Roedd y ffeil yn llawn ffotograffau manwl o fframiau pren, cytiau lloi a drysau. Dim ond dau gliw oedd yno allai fy helpu’r tro hwn: copi o gopi o gopi o fap o 1830, a dargopi o fap heb allwedd arno. Nodwedd gyffredin rhwng y ddau fap oedd y stribed o dir oedd yn culhau tua un pen. Dyma ble, ym 1508, yr adeiladwyd Hendre’r Ywydd.
Yn reddfol, mi deipiais y manylion i mewn i google maps, i chwilio am stribed debyg yn ardal Llangynhafal. Roedd hynny’n gam gwag, fel y gwelwch chi:
Fe benderfynais i ailymweld â google ar ôl i mi wneud chydig mwy o waith ymchwil. Roedd yn demtasiwn i ddibynnu ar wybodaeth y wefan honno – ond mae’n tirwedd ni wedi newid cyn gymaint ers y 1500au, ac yn ogystal enwau ein tai, ffyrdd a thafarndai, ei bod yn ffynhonnell annibynadwy yn yr achos yma. Mi es yn ôl at y dargopi, a chanobwyntio ar y siapiau – lleoliadau nentydd a thraciau, a nodweddion anarferol yn y tirwedd.
Yng nghanol haniaeth hyn i gyd, daeth Coflein i’r adwy. Rwyf wedi bod yn defnyddio’r gronfa ddata i edrych ar hanes tai eraill o ardal Llangynhafal, yn y gobaith y gallaf greu pictiwr ehangach o gyd-destun bywyd y 1500au yn Nyffryn Clwyd. Mae’r gronfa ddata, sy’n cael ei rheoli gan y Comisiwn Brenhinol Henebion Cymru, yn cyflenwi cyfeirnod GPS ac Ordnance Survey ar gyfer pob heneb a hen adeilad sydd wedi’i gofrestru ganddynt. Gallwch weld cofnod coflein am Hendre’r Ywydd yma.
Mae casgliad o fapiau Ordnance Survey mawr yma yn llyfrgell Sain Ffagan, felly es ati i groesgyfeirio’r wybodaeth oedd yn fy meddiant. Mae manylder mapiau OS yn wefreiddiol, ac ar ôl chwilio'n fanwl (a chael help gan Guradur Adeiladau Hanesyddol Sain Ffagan) fe ddaethom ni o hyd i rywbeth oedd yn canu cloch. Croesffordd gam; nant gyfarwydd...
Wrth i ni edrych eto, sylwais bod rhywun wedi bod yno o'n blaen, ac yn groes i eticet archifol, wedi marcio'r map ag inc coch yn agos at leoliad y tŷ (mater o bwys dirfawr i nerd fatha fi). Ar ôl deffro o fy llewyg, dychwelais at awyrluniau google a chyn pen dim, roeddwn i wedi gosod pin yn y map. Gallwn weld yn glir bod y stribed o dir yn dal i fodoli, mwy neu lai, fel y gwelwn hi ar fap 1830. Mae'r heol gyfagos yn cordeddu fel honno ar y dargopi:
Roedd yn naturiol fy mod yn ysu i ymweld â'r lle. A diolch i google, dwi nawr yn gwybod bod safle'r tŷ yn gae o gorn melys. Er fod hynna'n swnio bach yn rhy debyg i un o ganeuon Arfon Wyn, dwi'n hapus iawn i ddechrau fy nhaith i oes Harri Tudur yn fan hyn:
Rho glic isod i ymweld dy hun:
View Llangynhafal 1510 in a larger map
Tom Sharpe's Antarctic Diary
Saturday 19 November
Today began grey, overcast and cold, with light snow falling on the ship. We’ve now been breaking our way through the pack ice of the Ross Sea for three days, picking our way south through whatever open leads or thin ice present themselves.
On the southern horizon, in places, open water shows up as dark reflections on the underside of the cloud - a ‘water sky’. In other places, we see ice blink, where the clouds are brightened by the presence of the sea ice beneath. Our navigation through the pack is aided by satellite positioning; Scott relied upon dead reckoning and the sun to chart his progress.
This afternoon we sighted land for the first time in five days. Away to the west we’ve had our first glimpse of the continent of Antarctica. The faint, white, distant mountains rise to over 3500 metres. Appropriately, one of the first we see, Mount Murchison, is named after a geologist who worked in Wales 180 years ago.
We set course for the mainland, a point called Cape Washington, but the pack ice is too thick, even for our icebreaker. Instead, we’re continuing south, deeper into the Ross Sea, in the hope of breaking out of the pack and into a polynya, which satellite pictures show lies to the south of us.
Sunday 20 November
It’s been slow getting through the pack ice, but we’ve finally made it to Franklin Island, at 76o south.
The ice is thick around the island, but we got within 5 miles of it, so we took the helicopters and landed on the sea ice at the foot of steep black cliffs. From there we hiked about a mile and half south across the ice to a large colony of Emperor penguins at the southeastern end of the island. These are the stars of the movies March of the Penguins and Happy Feet. They walk long distances across the ice to breed, and after the egg is laid it is transferred to the male who then stands on the ice through the severe Antarctic winter holding it on his feet.
The males in the colony huddle together against the cold. The march of the penguins was first observed by Captain Scott on his first expedition. Their chicks are some of the cutest things on the planet and infitinely photogenic. We have a couple of examples of Emperor penguins in our collections in Cardiff, including one presented to us by Lt Teddy Evans of Scott’s last expedition, and that will be in January.
Polychaete research in the Falklands by Teresa Darbyshire - last day
[delwedd: Pengwin Adélie yng nghasgliadau'r Amgueddfa. ]
Pengwin Adélie yng nghasgliadau'r Amgueddfa. Pengwin Adélie yw'r unig bengwin Antarctig arall o'r iawn ryw. Mae tua hanner maint y Pengwin Ymerodrol ac yn pwyso rhwng 4 a 6 kg. Ymddengys bod newid hinsawdd yn y Penrhyn Antarctig yn effeithio ar Bengwiniaid Adélie. Dim ond pan fo digonedd o bacrew yn y môr y gall Pengwin Adélie ffynnu. Wrth i'r penrhyn gynhesu mae llai o bacrew ar gael ganol haf ac mae'r Pengwiniaid yn symud ymhellach i'r de i aros gyda'r pacrew
This morning I presented my last talk to the Fisheries Department which was about the methods of collecting and identifying polychaetes. It seemed to go down reasonably well and then I handed back my key and left for the last time.
My samples are now officially with the Post Office hopefully to be on their way back to the UK shortly. As for me my journey back starts at 5am tomorrow morning. It will already be daylight then and will be the last time I see daylight at that time of the morning for a few months to come. Arrival back in the UK is likely to be a bit of a shock for me I think as there is currently around 8 or 9 hours less daylight there each day than here and the weather is now decidedly wetter and colder. Shortest day is fast approaching in the UK with longest day due here next week. Ah well.
Several weeks ago I pointed out that my challenge would be to still be finding new animals on Day 28. By my calculations that would actually be today so I failed there as there has been no new sampling since Friday which was Day 25. However, as I did have a new worm that day, from my final site, I think that’s pretty good going!
My sampling here has gone well and I’m really pleased with the variety of animals I have been able to collect. I’m looking forward to being able to spend some time looking at them in more detail in the New Year. I’ve enjoyed my time here and had an amazing opportunity to visit a place and see things that many others won’t get a chance to and I appreciate how lucky I’ve been.
I know that some of the people I’ve meet here have also been reading this blog and I’d like to take the opportunity to thank everyone involved for all of the help I’ve had getting out here and during my stay, from loaning me cars to get around to coming out on the shores with me or taking me diving to get more samples. This trip wouldn’t have been nearly as successful without all of your help.
The Shallow Marine Surveys Group, whose survey work I piggy-backed to go diving, do a fantastic job out here with their dive surveys, mostly as volunteers with a few grants to help with costs and the Fisheries Department allowed me free run of their lab at all hours.
Not least of course I must thank the Shackleton Scholarship Fund and National Museum Wales who have funded and supported this visit.
Thank you all!
Polychaete research in the Falklands by Teresa Darbyshire - day 26-28
My directions turned out to be accurate and easy to follow and I arrived at Teal Creek in plenty of time for the tide. The biggest problem I had was deciding where to stop along the creek. At the time I arrived the tide still had a way to go out so it was difficult to know how much ground would be uncovered. I made my decision and walked out into the small inlet off the creek (photo 1). The area was very soft but the depth of the mud varied and I didn’t venture too far into deeper areas, wary of getting stuck. As I dug around I was surprised to find the same new ragworm that I had found at Sand Bay the previous day, having not found it at any site before and now two in a row. There were also many of the bamboo worms that seem to dominate the shores here.
I left the creek shortly before actual low tide in order to give myself time to get over to Camilla Creek where low tide would be in just over 2 hours time. The tide hadn’t gone down much for a while so I didn’t think I would be missing anything new being uncovered. As I drove out past the previous choices I had had for stopping in the area I realised that the earlier bays had much larger areas of mud flat exposed and I thought maybe I had made a mistake in my choice of sampling site. However, on reflection, the water had retreated to the far side of the creek from these bays and that would have left me with no access to water across the mud which is essential during the collecting, so I probably did make the right choice after all.
Camilla Creek was reached fairly quickly with some expanses of mud flat already exposed. It was a much larger, wider creek (photo 2) than Teal but the shore itself seemed more gravelly leading down to it. I quickly realised that although the approach was easier, the mud itself was softer and deeper and probably not to be ventured too far into without additional company for safety and better sampling gear than what now felt like a very short pair of wellies. After extricating myself from the mud I skirted around the edge of the water level in the small bay sampling different spots and finding quite a variety of different mud, sand and hard areas to try.
Eventually it was time to leave for the journey back. This time I kept the window tightly shut and arrived back slightly less dusty than the previous night. There was at least one new worm for my list from the samples in the form of another different paddleworm (photo 3).
Saturday saw the last of the formaldehyde to alcohol changing where possible. The later samples would all have to stay in formaldehyde though as they needed to stay in that fluid for at least a few days to make sure they were properly ‘fixed’ before being moved to alcohol. That will now be done after both I and they arrive back in Cardiff. This was then followed by several hours of painstakingly sealing and taping around the lid of each pot and then sealing them into bags in order to reduce the risk of any fluid leakage during transport. As there were around 200 pots to do this took a while! The photo shows all of the pots at various stages of packing.
This morning (Sunday) saw a few more hours of sealing and packing until I had 7 boxes of packed samples ready for posting tomorrow (I can’t bring them back on the plane with me sadly).
There had been plans to do a last shore dive locally this afternoon but unfortunately the wind has scuppered our plans, blowing strongly all day. As it would have been a shallow site with entry off the shore, the windy conditions would have made getting in and out of the water difficult, conditions underwater uncomfortable and visibility poor, so an obvious decision was made. Still disappointing though as everyone had told me what a lovely dive it was going to be!
Tomorrow’s plan includes my final talk at the Fisheries Department in the morning followed by getting those parcels on their way and then getting my own packing started. Only one more day left here!
christmas decorations part two.
In my last post I mentioned that I would be running a drop in arts and crafts session on the 17th december in Oriel 1, St Fagans: National History Museum. We will be taking inspiration from 1950s decorations, and to get some good ideas I went around the site with my camera the other day and took these photos.
Do you have anything similar at home? don't forget to let me know your memories of Christmas decorations in your house when you were growing up too!
Polychaete research in the Falklands by Teresa Darbyshire - day 25
Wow, what a glorious day! It’s a bank holiday here but unlike most in the UK, a bank holiday with fantastic weather. The temperature is 18degC, that may not sound that high but it feels very warm and the burn factor is quite high. It’s been strange driving along listening to the radio reporting the weather in the UK which I hear is particularly bad right now. I am very thankful for being where I am!
This morning’s sampling site was Sand Bay, near Port Harriet, about a half hour drive out of Stanley. The bay opens out quickly to a wide area of sand (photo 1). The sand varies quite widely across the bay from very coarse to fine, sometimes with gravel or rocks and in other places just sand. The animals themselves also seemed to change accordingly so it was worth dotting my sampling sites around the bay.
Although at first this bay didn’t seem that much different to several of the other sites I’ve been to, a couple of the samples turned up some very different animals.
The most interesting was in a patch of the ‘solid’ sand, no stones but with some layers of old plant material as you dug down. Burrowing into those layers were a different sort of ragworm to any of those I’ve seen in any of my other samples, with striking red and white colours along its body (photo 2). I spent a while collecting several of these as they were obviously a different species to those I already had.
There was also a different type of paddleworm, the longest yet (photo 3), from one of the other sample spots. I only found one of these though.
By the time the tide turned, I had a large collection of pots from the different sites around the bay and a few animals that I already knew would be new to my list. As I wanted to get some photos of the ragworm with its colours I decided to go back into Stanley to the Fisheries lab rather than head straight out towards Darwin. I wasn’t that far away and it was worth the time. After a quick photo session I then got back on the road again, back out past where I had already been that morning and on to Darwin which would be nearly a 2 hour drive.
As it was such a warm and dry day I had the window open slightly but wasn’t prepared for just how much dust was created driving along the gravel roads. It was only when I arrived here at Darwin that I realised that the car, both inside as well as out, and myself, were coated in the dust.
I have been given instructions on how to get to the two creeks I want to sample tomorrow and hopefully they will also provide some interesting finds to end the week.
Eich Cwestiynau a sylwadau
Cwestiynau gan ysgolion sy'n cymryd rhan yn y prosiect Bylbiau'r Gwanwyn i Ysgolion
Woodplumpton Primary School
Q: We heard on the radio that someone had seen crocus bulbs that had begun to grow. They said it was very early and a sign of global warming. We were very interested and talked about how we probably would not have taken any notice if we weren't part of the project. We were also a bit worried because there is no sign of life with our bulbs!
Ans: I'm delighted to hear that you are discussing global warming and linking it to the bulbs you are growing in your school and the reports you hear on the radio. Global warming can seem like something far awar and remote, but by studying our wildlife and flowers carefully we can see that it is happening in our gardens and very relevant to us all. Don't worry about your bulbs, they shouldn't be coming up yet. Thanks Prof. P.
Bishop Childs C.I.W Primary. Q:How are we doing? Ans: You are doing really well Bishop Childs - keep up the good work! Prof P.
Ysgol Bro Cinmeirch. Pawb yn mwynhau! Falch i clywed! Athro'r Ardd.
Stanford in the Vale Primary School
Third week....crazy week of observations...warm,cold, warmer!
Woodplumpton Primary School
Q: We are very surprised at how little rain we are getting and are a bit worried about the bulbs getting enough water. Ans: If the soil becomes very dry please water them. Thanks Prof. P
Sherwood Primary School
We have just had a terrential downpour just before we sent the records - that is why Friday's rain may seem high!
Westwood CP School
Very mild since started recording. It won't be long before the crocuses start pushing through! Ans: They should start to appear in January. Prof. P
Sherwood Primary School
School was shut on Wednesday for the National Strike, so Thursday's rainfall results may be inflated. We planted a few spare daffs and they have begun to shoot! The children are excited! Ans: Wow this is early - many flowers are appearing across the country. Prof P.