The unknown soldier
As part of Amgueddfa Cymru’s First World War centenary programme the collections relating to this period will be conserved, digitised and made available online. My role at the museum is Textile Conservator so I am responsible for the practical care of the textile collections across all seven sites. There are many WW1 objects in the textile collection; most take the form of commemorative or souvenir pieces while others are costumes and accessories.
One of the objects recently conserved for the project is an embroidered panel measuring 43.5cm x 53.5cm maker unknown, it is made from a single piece of royal blue silk satin embroidered with flags and text which reads ‘VICTORY FOR THE ALLIES MALTA PRESENT’ in yellow silk thread using stem stitch. It also features a photograph of a Welsh soldier printed onto a postcard which is slipped inside a frame made from card and covered in painted silk. The frame is tacked to the satin along the bottom and sides with the top edge left open. The flags are made with lines of silk floss which have been laid down to form the coloured sections and secured in a criss-cross, net like fashion and couched using a very fine thread. Thicker, cotton threads are used to define the sections of colour, the flags and poles are made from a coiled paper thread with a cotton core.
When it came to the conservation studio the panel was in a fair condition with some light surface soiling all over and creasing across the silk from being folded around the frame at some point, probably before it came to the museum. It is possible that the panel once had an adhesive backing as the embroidery threads on the reverse appear stiff and flattened. There is also some abrasion to the surface of the embroidery threads and satin floating yarns. The top and bottom edges are frayed and there are several splits in the ground fabric where it has been stitched through.
The conservation treatment began with a surface clean using a micro vacuum to pick up dust and fluff. It was then humidified to remove the creases; we cannot iron historic textiles because the heat and pressure of conventional irons can cause further damage. Instead we use gentle techniques with cold water vapour or in this case, a combination of materials layered up to introduce moisture gradually to the textile giving it time to penetrate the fibres. Once the fibres were relaxed, glass weights were used to hold them in position whilst drying. The photograph was removed during the humidification process to avoid any damage. The next stage was to support the splits in the satin which affect the stability of the textile. Fine silk crepeline was chosen to do this because it is gives a light support but is almost transparent, so even though it covers the reverse you can still see the threads; it was dyed blue to match the colour of the satin. The crepeline was fixed to the textile using a very fine layer of thermoplastic adhesive, which was applied to the dyed crepeline and allowed to dry. The adhesive was then re-activated to bond it to the reverse of the panel using a heated spatula, the bond created is enough to support the textile but not so strong that it cannot be removed in the future if required. The frayed edges were then laid out and secured though to the backing by working a blanket stitch along the edge using a fine polyester thread.
The textile is now back in store but will soon be available to view online and may one day go on display at St Fagans. Keep checking the blog for more updates as the project progresses!
The Soldier in the photograph is yet to be identified if you recognise him please contact the museum via Elen Philips Principal Curator: Contemporary & Community History Tel: 029 2057 3432 or on Twitter: @StFagansTextile
Wallace; the Forgotten Evolutionist?
This week our exhibition to commemorate the centenary of the death of the brilliant naturalist, Alfred Russel Wallace has opened for exploration. But who was he?
Wallace was many things - an intrepid explorer, a brilliant naturalist, a social activist, a political commentator – overall a remarkable intellectual. By the time of his death in 1913, Wallace was widely praised as the 'last of the great Victorians'.
Wallace is most famously associated with co-discovering the process of evolution by natural selection alongside Charles Darwin. Yet we have all heard of Darwin, whilst Wallace has become more of a forgotten figure.
In his time Wallace travelled extensively, surviving malaria, numerous fevers and even shipwreck! He covered thousands of miles, lived with indigenous tribes and collected over 125 000 animal specimens. He also wrote widely on a range of subjects, publishing more than 800 articles and writing 22 books.
This exhibition attempts to explore some of Wallace's life and work, and in doing so raise our awareness of this remarkable man. The exhibition uses a mix of media, and has rich diversity of specimens on display, including specimens collected by the great man himself.
Associated with the exhibition are a range of workshops, talks and tours. Check out the website for an up-to-date list of ‘whats on’.
We really hope you enjoy the exhibition and welcome feedback on your visit
Beans on Toast
3 primary schools took part in activities exploring the new Beans on Toast exhibition at the National Museum Cardiff last week.
Pupils from Windsor Clive Primary School, Trelai Primary School and Ysgol Wirfoddol Abergwili explored where in the world our food comes from and how we can make sustainable choices about the food we buy. They then worked with an artist to create a 'World Food Stall' display to encourage discussion on the issues of food security back in school.
Funding was received to work with the artist through the British Ecological Society.
The exhibition will be open until 29 September 2013. Contact the Learning Department 029 2057 3240 if you would like to take part in future activities.
Penblwydd hapus to Alfred Russel Wallace!
Today, 8 January, marks the 190th birthday of the intrepid explorer and brilliant naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace. Born in 1823 in the village of Llanbadoc near Usk, Wallace went on to be one of the most celebrated scientists of his era.
Wallace spent much of his early working years as a civil engineer in the south Wales area, particularly in the Vale of Neath. This involved spending a great deal of time working outdoors, which allowed him to indulge in his growing passion for natural history.
Soon, inspired by the writings of traveling naturalists such as Alexander von Humboldt and Charles Darwin, Wallace set out on his own intrepid travels. These adventures started in the Amazon Basin and were followed later by his explorations of the Malay Archipelgo.
During these trips Wallace collected many thousands of birds, butterflies and beetles, many of which were new to science. The biological diversity he encountered inspired his thinking in many areas of biology such as the distribution and evolution of species. His brilliance did not go un-noticed and in 1858 he famously co-published the theory of evolution by natural selection with Charles Darwin.
During 2013 Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales, along with other museums and institutions across the world, will be marking the centenary of the death of A R Wallace in a celebration of his life and legacy. Keep an eye on our web site and blog for further information as we finalise details and dates. You will also be able to follow other events and exhibitions on the Wallace100 website.
Natural History Halloween Open Day - more scary pictures!
Following on from the last post about our Natural History Halloween Open Day, we thought you might like to see some more pictures of the event.
We had some freshly collected fungi on display, including an invitation to sample the smell of a fresh stinkhorn and to speculate on the significance of the smell to the biology of the fungus. We found it got some interesting reactions (although it’s not so fun being sat downwind from it!).
There were also some less stinky but realistic wax models of fungi. These were made in the mid 1900s by our in-house botanical model-maker, a practice that continues today.
A ‘murder mystery’ had also taken place in our herbarium (the plant collections), an area not usually open to the public. Whilst surrounded by our quarter of a million pressed herbarium specimens, you had to work out which plant was used to poison the victim!
If this has whetted your appetite, keep an eye on our Natural History collections Twitter feed @NatHistConservation for more behind the scenes sneak peeks. Also stay tuned to the What’s On guide on our main website for details of the next Open Day. More stories from behind the scenes can also be found on the 'Rhagor' pages of our website e.g. conserving wax models.
Old Bones for a New Exhibition
More than 20 years ago the Museum was donated a large research collection of animal bones. This had been put together by a veterinary scientist, Dr Barbara Noddle. The collection mainly consists of sheep, goat and cattle bones from many different breeds.
When it was donated the collection was in a poor state and required extensive conservation and curation. Today it is now housed in over 600 boxes at our offsite Collection Centre at Nantgarw, and a database is available on the website.
Over the years the Noddle Collection has mainly been used in zoo-archaeological research – this is the study of animal remains found at archaeological sites. However parts of the collection will soon find their way into the exhibition limelight!
From the 13th October ‘The Wolf Inside’ exhibition opens. This will be looking at animal domestication, focusing on dogs but also exploring other animals such as sheep and chickens. And this is where Barbara’s collection of old bones finds a new use. We are using a range of skulls from the collection to show some of the diversity found in the different breeds of sheep. A range of these skulls have been checked over and polished up ready for public display.
Along with the skulls there will also be a whole range of animal specimens on display from the museums collections, many of which we haven’t had the opportunity to bring out for many years.
The exhibition runs until February next year.
New Natural History Galleries
At long last all the natural history galleries are now open again at National Museum Cardiff. You can see old favourites such as the Humpback Whale and the world's largest recorded Leatherback Turtle but there is also something new.
We have created a new gallery which is an introduction to marine biodiversity - or life in the sea. The gallery has over 100 new marine specimens on display with a focus on marine invertebrates rather than fish and you will also find specimens of seaweeds, an often neglected group when it comes to museum displays.
Nearly all the specimens have been displayed in indvidual cases which allows you to get up close and marvel at the intricate design of some of these beasts (and algae!). We have reserved the 3 large cases to display heavy or fragile specimens. Two have displays of some of our fantastic Blaschka glass models. The detail in these models has to be seen to be believed and all the more amazing is they were made over 100 years ago.
So if you are in Cardiff and have an hour free why not pop in and have a look at the new galleries.
Lower Natural History Galleries re-opening soon
The west wing natural history galleries have now been closed for well over a year. This has been due to the building works replacing the west wing roof and installing the new contemporary art galleries on the top floor. These works are completed and we are now working hard to get the ground floor natural history galleries back into shape.
The front gallery remains mainly the same but we have taken the opportunity to give the dioramas a deep clean, replace the carpet and redo the lighting. As a result the space is looking much brighter and fresher.
The remaining ground floor gallery space has seen some big changes. We are currently installing a new display area called ‘Insight’. This is a series of modular displays, many with interactive touch screens, which will explore the science that goes on behind the scenes at the museum.
Beyond this is another new display area that looks at evolution, and provides a linking space to the newly refurbished science education room.
These spaces will all be fully open to the public on April 16th when we look forward to welcoming you back into these gallery spaces.
Unfortunately the mezzanine area gallery spaces, where the Leatherback Turtle and Humpback Whale can be found, will remain closed a few months longer. Once the ground floor is open we will be cleaning and redoing some of the displays in this area in preparation for the BBC Wildlife Photographer exhibition which opens in mid June.
Mae�r Bwdh�u cynifer a gronynnau tywod afon y Ganges: Arysgrif yn Baodingshan, Dazu, OC 1177-1249
Mai 2010. Dwi’n sefyll ar bwys y pen mwyaf dwi erioed wedi’i weld. Wedi’i gerfio mewn tywodfaen a’i baentio, mae’n perthyn i Fwdha anferth sy’n lledorwedd yng nghanol teml ogof Baodingshan. Baodingshan, ‘Copa’r Trysorau’, yw’r mwyaf syfrdanol o’r 75 safle teml wedi’u cerfio o garreg sy’n ffurfio Safle Treftadaeth y Byd Dazu yn ne-orllewin Tsieina. Mae 10,000 o ffigurau unigol i’w gweld yn y graig dywodfaen 500m, gafodd eu cerfio rhwng OC1177 a 1249.
Mae’n brofiad aruthrol. Dwi’n methu â chredu cymaint oedd yr uchelgais ar gyfer y safle Bwdhaidd; y dychymyg soffistigedig a’i cynlluniodd; a sgiliau’r artistiaid a’i cerfiodd. Rydw i yma gyda fy nghydweithiwr Steve Howe i gynllunio arddangosfa o gerfiadau Dazu yn Amgueddfa Genedlaethol Caerdydd tua dechrau 2011, a dwi’n pendroni sut ydyn ni’n mynd i gyfleu hud y llefydd hyn i’n hymwelwyr ni.
Yr ymweliad yma â Dazu yw fy nhro cyntaf yn ôl yn Tsieina ers i mi dreulio cyfnod yn gweithio yma tua chanol y 1980au. Mae Tsieina wedi newid yn aruthrol wrth gwrs, ac mae cyflymdra’r newid yn dwyn anadl dyn bron cymaint â’r bwyd Sichuanaidd chwilboeth (y gorau yn Tsiena, yn fy marn i) mae ein lletywyr hael yn ein hannog i’w fwyta bob cyfle posib. Ond, er gwaetha’r newidiadau eraill, mae’r pethau pwysicaf, sef y bobl gymdeithasol, a’u balchder o’u treftadaeth ddiwylliannol ragorol, yma o hyd.
Yn ystod ein hwythnos gyda’n cydweithwyr yn Amgueddfa Cerfiadau Carreg Dazu, rydyn ni wedi datblygu cyfeillgarwch cynnes llawn ymddiried, ac rydyn ni wedi sylweddoli y bydd gennym ni gyfle i greu rhywbeth arbennig iawn yn ôl yng Nghaerdydd. Wedi’r cyfan, mae Dazu yn cynrychioli sbri mawr olaf celf mewn temlau ogof, a dyw’r trysorau o gyfnod llinach y Song (OC960-1279) ddim wedi cael eu gweld tu allan i Tsieina o’r blaen.
Yn ôl yng Nghymru fach, roedd y tîm arddangosfeydd yn barod am yr her, ac fe lwyddon nhw, o dan bwysau amser sylweddol, i gyfleu drama a thangnefedd ymweliad â theml ogof wedi’i cherfio mewn carreg. Mae harddwch eithriadol y cerfiadau – sy’n ysbrydol ac yn arbennig o ddynol ar yr un pryd – yn sefyll allan. O blith nifer o hoff ddarnau, byddwn yn dewis ffigur myfyriol Zhao Zhifeng, dylunydd safle Baodingshan, ac i’r gwrthwyneb yn hollol, y teulu o gymeriadau o feddrod sy’n cynnwys y tad difrifol, y fam hyfryd, a dau o blant drwg. Ond, mae’r lle blaenaf yn mynd i Fwdha Sakyamuni. Mae’r Bwdha yn ei holl ogoniant awdurdodol ac urddasol yn croesawu’r ymwelwyr i’r arddangosfa ac yn rhoi canolbwynt arbennig o ysbrydol i’r profiad.
Roeddwn i’n arbennig o falch o weld bod y canlyniadau wedi plesio ein cydweithwyr Tsieineaidd, a hefyd o weld brwdfrydedd ymwelwyr o bob lliw a llun, boed y rheini o Gaerdydd neu Tsieina, yn arbenigwyr neu’n blant ysgol. Peidiwch â phoeni os yw’r holl ffigurau a’r syniadau Bwdhaidd, a’r syniadau Conffiwsaidd a Taoaidd sy’n plethu â nhw, yn ormod i chi. Mwynhewch y sioe, a chofiwch am arysgrif arall yn Dazu sy’n cyfleu symlrwydd Bwdhaeth: ‘o ddeall yn glir; gwelir nad oes dim i’w ddeall’.
Andrew Renton, Pennaeth Celf Gymwys, Amgueddfa Genedlaethol Caerdydd
Dacw Dazu'n dwad: blinder a chyffro y daith i Tsieina
Wedi sicrhau bod arddangosfa Dazu yn dod i Gymru - y tro cyntaf erioed iddi fentro i’r Gorllewin – anfonodd yr Amgueddfa fi i Tsieina fel hwylusydd, wyneb cyfeillgar i gyfarfod â’r bobl ac adrodd ar y gofynion logistaidd llawn o gludo’r gwrthrychau sanctaidd yma yr holl ffordd i Gaerdydd.
Dyma ddyddiadur o atgofion y trip:
Po bellaf y teithiwch, y lleiaf y gwyddoch. Mae’r llinell honno o ddysgeidiaeth Tao yn fy atgoffa i anghofio unrhyw ragdybiaethau.
Rwy’n cyrraedd Dazu yn hwyr min nos ac wedi diwrnod cyfan o deithio mewn amrywiol seddi bychan anghyfforddus, rwy’n ddiolchgar i orffen fy nhaith o’r diwedd. Mae fy ngwesteiwyr wedi cyffroi fy mod wedi cyrraedd ac wedi paratoi swper croeso yn garedig iawn. Platiau mawr egsotig a lliwgar yw’r bwyd, prydau crefftus â garnais arbennig.
Platiau di-ri i Susan ddiog, cylch hud o aroglau a blasau anghyffredin sy’n gwneud i mi ddyheu am ollyngdod llwyr. Rwy’n cael fy helpu drwy bob cwrs gyda disgrifiadau manwl. Pryfed sidan, deintgig moch a chynffon rhywbeth! Mwynheais yn barchus fod yn destun digrifwch y noson, gwestai anrhydeddus y wledd gywrain.
Drannoeth dyma fi’n sefyll wrth droed y mynydd â’m gwadnau lledr ar risiau hynafol sydd wedi gweld sawl gwadn dros y canrifoedd. Mae llystyfiant trwchus yn gorchuddio’r copa sy’n gudd mewn mantell o niwl chwareus.
Yn Beishan mae pinacl cerfiadau carreg Tseineiadd, ac mae’r delweddau cyfarwydd o lyfrau bellach yn ddelweddau real artistig ac ysbrydol. Mae mawredd y cerfluniau rhagorol yma a’u hawdurdod cain yn neidio o’r waliau sy’n 10 metr o uchder, gyda phob cilfach yn gartref i olygfeydd gosgeiddig sy’n wych yn eu tywodfaen rhudd. Diwrnod i’w gofio heb os!
Mae’n bryd cwrdd â’r cyfryngau lleol y bore wedyn. Mae arogl gwniadur o wirod gwyn yn dweud cyfrolau am ei flas. Rwy’n gwybod bod yn rhaid i mi ei yfed ar ei ben. Fi yw’r atyniad pennaf heddiw ac mae pawb am gael gair â mi.
Ffilmio ar gyfer teledu Chongqing yw’r dasg gyntaf ac mae erthygl ar dudalen flaen papur lleol Dazu hefyd. Mae’n anodd cofio’r cyfweliadau, profiad swrreal braidd o ryddiaith Saesneg fratiog, drosgynnol wedi’i ddatgan gyda chyffro a syndod. Mae’n rhaid ei bod hi wedi mynd yn iawn a mod i wedi meithrin cyfeillgarwch wrth i giw trefnus ffurfio i rannu gwydryn arall o’r tân gwyn!
Heno yw fy noson olaf yn Tsieina yn anffodus. Rwy’n syllu drwy’r niwl parhaol ar nenlin tyrrau Chongqing sy’n taflu enfys neon dros afon Yangzi. Rwy’n gadael prysurdeb y strydoedd ac arogl huddygl a tofu’n ffrio, ac yn gweld y ddinas yn ei gogoniant o gwch pleser gorlawn.
Mae’r newidiadau creadigol a masnachol anferth sydd ar droed yn Tsieina yn adrodd hanes y newid o wleidyddiaeth rymus i economeg ymarferol. Gall Tsieina a gweddill y byd ddysgu llawer o ddidwylledd China. Rwy’n gadael â lle yn fy nghalon i’r wlad a’i phobl.
Lee Jones, Uwch Dechnegydd, Amgueddfa Genedlaethol Caerdydd
Parcha’r byd fel dy hun
Gall y byd fod yn hafan it
Car y byd fel dy hun
Gall y byd fod yn ymddiriedaeth it.