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Chwefror 2015

Dyddiadau blodeuo cyntaf!

Postiwyd gan Penny Tomkins ar 27 Chwefror 2015
Prif rannau blodyn (o wefan y BBC Bitesize).

Dyma lun gwych sef wedi ei labelu'n glir a gafodd ei anfon i mi y llynedd:

Helo Gyfeillion y Gwanwyn,

Mae gen i newyddion cyffrous! Mae'r dyddiadau blodeuo cyntaf wedi eu cofnodi ar y wefan!

Llongyfarchiadau i Ysgol Deganwy – blodeuodd eu Crocws cyntaf nhw ar y 21ain o Chwefror, yn 90mm o uchder. Blodeuodd Crocws cyntaf Ysgol Tal Y Bont a  Ysgol Bancyfelin ar y 23ain o Chwefror yn 65mm o uchder. A blodeuodd Crocws cyntaf Ysgol Gynradd Ynysddu ar y 25ain o Chwefror yn 50mm o uchder. Maent yn disgwyl i ddau arall flodeuo unrhyw ddiwrnod nawr!

Blodeuodd planhigion Swiss Valley CP School yn gynharach fyth, dros y gwyliau hanner tymor.

Mae Silverdale St John's CE School wedi adrodd bod rhai o'r crocws gafodd eu plannu mewn teiars wedi blodeuo. Mae un yn 110mm o daldra!

A heddiw, cefais dystiolaeth ffotograffig drwy Twitter i dangos  bod Ysgol Gynradd Llanharan o leiaf dau blanhigyn Crocws sef wedi tyfu'n llawn! Gwelodd y dosbarth un ohonyn nhw ar agor heddiw!

Cofiwch gofnodi'r diwrnod blodeuo ac uchder eich planhigyn ar wefan Amgueddfa Cymru. Ond, peidiwch â gwneud hyn tan mae'r petalau yn gwbl weladwy a chofiwch fesur taldra mewn milimedrau!

Byddwn wrth fy modd yn cael lluniau o'ch blodau i’w rhoi ar wefan yr Amgueddfa a fy nhudalen Twitter. Gofynnwch i'ch athrawon i anfon y rhain ataf os yn bosib!

Hoffwn hefyd weld pa mor artistig ydych chi! Felly, mae gennyf weithgaredd i chi ei gwneud unwaith y bydd eich blodau wedi agor! Hoffwn i chi i dynnu darlun manwl o'ch planhigyn a labelu ei wahanol rannau. Mae hon yn ffordd wych o ddod i adnabod eich blodau yn well ac i weld pa mor gymhleth y gall pethau bach o'r fath fod. Mae hefyd yn ddiddorol iawn i gymharu Cennin Pedr a'r Crocws – allwch chi weld y tebygrwydd a'r gwahaniaethau? Mewn sawl ffordd mae pob blodyn yn debyg iawn, er eu bod yn edrych yn hollol wahanol ar yr olwg gyntaf!

Dyma gêm hwyliog yn ymwneud â labelu planhigion o wefan Bitesize y BBC.

Edrychaf ymlaen at weld eich lluniau.

Daliwch ati Gyfeillion y Gwanwyn,

Athro’r Ardd

Eich cwestiynau:

Stanford in the Vale Primary School: We had snow on Tuesday! Bitter cold all week. Prof P: Wow Stanford in the Vale Primary, you have had cold weather! -2 on Tuesday – burrr!

Rivington Foundation Primary School: Our daffodils in pots started sprouting last week, now between 1 and 4 cms. Daffodils in pots no sign yet. Probably too cold in the ground. Professor Plant: Hi Rivington Foundation Primary, I’m glad to hear your bulbs are sprouting! It is exciting to see how fast they grow once they start to show above the soil. Usually, the plants in the ground would grow first because they are slightly warmer than your plants in pots. But this depends on a number of things, such as how much frost you have had! I’m sure they will show themselves soon, maybe they are waiting for it to get a little warmer!


Chryston Primary School: Sorry but we were off for 3 days and sadly a bulb got squished because it is near the playground and a ball landed of top of it. The good news is the bulbs are starting to grow. Next week we will start recording the height of the bulbs. Prof P: Oh I am sorry to hear that you lost one of your bulbs! I hope you are all sharing so that no one is too upset – these things do happen! I’m glad to hear that your bulbs have started growing though! It’s interesting to document how quickly they grow, and to see that each one grows at its own pace!

Saint Anthony's Primary School: We are enjoying taking the measurements and are delighted at how well our bulbs are progressing. Prof P: Hi Saint Anthony’s Primary, I’m glad to hear you are enjoying the project. I very much enjoy studying all the weather records that are sent in. And I especially like receiving lovely comments that show me others enjoy this project as much as I do! Keep up the good work Bulb Buddies.

Glyncollen Primary School: We have had good fun so far doing spring bulbs investigation! Prof P: I’m glad you are enjoying the project Bulb Buddies! There are lots more experiments and investigations you can do if you are enjoying this one, why not have a look at the MET Office website for idea! 


Saint Anthony's Primary School: We have noticed that the temperatures have recently been rising and falling. Prof P: Hi Saint Anthony’s Primary, I’m glad to hear that you are studying and comparing your weather records. You have had a bit of a jump, from -2 on Wednesday to 11 on Thursday! Differences like this can result from taking readings at different times of day, as the temperature will be consistently lower in the morning than in the afternoon! This is why it’s important to always try to take the readings at around the same time. However, this can also result from changes in the weather. I’m guessing it was a lot sunnier and less cloudy on Thursday compared to the rest of the week!

Our Lady of Peace Primary School: We hope our bulbs flower soon. We enjoyed planting them. Prof P: I’m sure it won’t be long now Our Lady of Peace Primary! One of my Crocus plants is nearly big enough, but it will be a while yet before my other plants flower! Isn’t it interesting to see that all of our plants are developing differently even though we planted them on the same day!


Keir Hardie Memorial Primary School: We have started to see that our bulbs are starting to grow. Some of our bulbs during the extremely windy weather blew over and were nearly out of the plant box and plant pot. However, we have seen some growth in a number of our plant pots and are hoping they will grow further. For the other ones that had blew over, we replanted them just in case there is any hope. This was a few weeks ago so hopefully we will see some change. Prof P: Hi Keir Hardie Memorial Primary, you did the right thing by re-planting your bulbs. I have my fingers crossed that they will still grow for you! I’m glad to hear that some of your plants have started to grow and that you are monitoring them so closely. Keep up the good work!

Glyncollen Primary School: We have had a broken thermometer on Monday and Tuesday. Professor Plant: Hi Glyncollen Primary. I’m sorry that your thermometer wasn’t working. But I’m glad to see that you fixed it or got a new one, and that you still took your rain fall readings. Good work!  

The Blessed Sacrament Catholic Primary School: Nearly all our bulbs have shoots now the weather is a bit warmer and the mystery bulbs have buds so it looks like we may have some flowers soon. E and O. Prof P: Ooo this is exciting! Once your mystery bulbs have flowered let me know what type of plant you think they might be! Keep up the god work!

Stanford in the Vale Primary School: Another strange week with the weather....high winds, cold and heavy rain, then beautiful sunshine! Our plants in the ground look as if they could be showing signs of opening.....but the one in pots seem rather behind....so we are on constant watch! Kind Regards, Gardening Club. Prof P: Hi Stanford in the Vale Primary Gardening Club! I’m glad to hear that your plants are doing well, and that you are comparing the growth of the plants in the ground to the plants in pots. It’s very interesting that these are developing differently, can you think of reasons why this might be?

Glyncollen Primary School: Some of our spring bulbs are starting to grow and our crocus! Prof P: That’s good news Glyncollen Primary, keep a close eye on them now because they’ll grow quickly!

A Window into the Industry Collections - February 2015

Postiwyd gan Mark Etheridge ar 26 Chwefror 2015

One of the most exciting objects the Museum has acquired for the industry collections this month is an Albert Medal. This Albert Medal, Land, Second Class (No. 32), was presented to William Morgan for his heroism during the Tynewydd Colliery inundation. William Morgan was a collier at Hafod Colliery, Porth. The disaster occurred on the 11 April 1877 and further information can be found in this article. Information on Albert Medals can be found in this article where you will note that Amgueddfa Cymru now holds seven of the Albert medals awarded for Tynewydd. A number of objects relating to the Tynewydd disaster can be seen in a display on coal mining disasters at Big Pit: National Mining Museum.

This month the museum purchased a collection of share certificates to add to the already important collection of Welsh interest certificates held by the Museum.

The debenture seen here is for P.S. Phillips Ltd. Philip Samuel Phillips owned five Monmouthshire tinplate works and built a steel works, making him a major figure in the late nineteenth century Welsh tinplate industry. He acquired Abertillery Tinplate Works prior to 1872, and was part owner of Blaina Tinplate Works. He acquired Pontymister Tinplate Works in 1880 and then Lion Tinplate Works at Nantyglo in 1882. He also acquired Waterloo Tinplate Works near Machen prior to 1893. In 1891 he opened Pontymister Steel Works to supply his, and other tinplate works. The company was wound up in 1897.

This debenture is for Hurst’s Mines Limited. This company was registered in 1896 to acquire the Glasdir Coper Mine in Merionethshire. The name of the company reflecting Henry Ernest Hurst, a mining engineer and principal creditor of a previous company. The company embarked on large scale development at Glasdir, employing 125 men by 1897. It was renamed Glasdir Copper Mines Ltd. in 1898. The low grade of ore and depressed prices forced the company into liquidation in 1903. It was reopened under a new company from 1907 until final closure in 1914.

The Railway Heritage Committee was established by statute. It has the function of designating records and objects which are historically significant to the history of railways, and should be permanently preserved. This plaque has been designated by the Committee and deposited with the Museum. It is a cast iron plate of Evans, O'Donnell & Co. Ltd., and was originally attached to Barry Town signal box. 

If you look back at some of my previous blogs you will see that over the last few months we have acquired an original Lesbians & Gaymen Support the Miners badge dating from 1985. Also a promotional t-shirt from the film ‘Pride’. This badge was produced in 2014 to commemorate the 30th anniversary.

This full hull ship model is of the S.S. CALDY. The original ship was built by Richardson, Duck & Co. Ltd. of Stockton-0n-Tees, for Farrar, Groves & Co. Ltd. in 1913.

This poster shows rail sections produced at Cwm Celyn, Blaina & Coalbrook Vale Iron Works 1860-1867, whilst in the ownership of Frederick Levick and his son-in-law Robert Simpson. Wrought iron rails were the single most important product of the Welsh iron industry in the mid nineteenth century with enormous tonnages being exported worldwide for the construction of railways.

Mark Etheridge
Curator: Industry & Transport
Follow us on Twitter - @IndustryACNMW

Brinley Edmunds – Barry’s Boy Soldier

Postiwyd gan Elen Phillips ar 26 Chwefror 2015

On this day in 1917, Brinley Rhys Edmunds, an 18 year old groom from Barry, joined the army – one teenager among the 272,924 Welshmen who served during the First World War.

At the time, Brinley was living with his parents – Evan Edmunds and his Norwegian wife, Christine Sofia – at 7 Dunraven Street, a stone’s throw from the hustle and bustle of Barry Docks. On the 1911 census, his father’s occupation is listed as Railway Engine Driver. From the census, we also learn that he, along with two of his four siblings, was a Welsh speaker.  

Brinley’s Record of Service Paper – the form he completed at a Cardiff recruiting office on 26 February 1917 – shows that he was initially assigned to the 59th Training Reserve Battalion. As you can see, the recruiting officer mistakenly noted his name as Brindley, rather than Brinley – an error replicated in all subsequent military records. The Service Paper reveals an intriguing twist to Brinley’s story. It appears that he had enlisted once before, with the 18th Battalion The Welsh Regiment, but was discharged for being underage:

Have you ever served in any branch of His Majesty’s Forces, naval or military? If so, which?

Yes 18 Welch Discharged under age 16-11-15

By my calculations, Brinley was born in November 1898, therefore he would have been 17 years old, or thereabouts, when he was discharged from the 18th Battalion. He probably joined-up at the age of 16, but I have been unable to trace any online documents relating to his time as an underage teenage tommy.

Frustrations aside, we’re fortunate to have several objects in the collection which were donated to the Museum by Brinley’s family in the late 1970s and early 1980s. They are among the most powerful and poignant of all the First World War collections in our care. Although undated, the postcard shown here was almost certainly written by Brinley when he served with The Welsh Regiment. In July 1915, the 18th Battalion moved to Prees Heath training camp in Shropshire. This novelty postcard, addressed to Brinley’s parents, includes a set of pull-out images of the camp.

In addition to the postcard, we also have a beautiful pincushion made by Brinley as a gift for his mother. The centre features the insignia of The Welsh Regiment and the motto Gwell Angau na Chywilydd (Better Death than Dishonour). We don’t know where or why Brinley made this pincushion, but it’s possible that he was given the material and beads in kit format to alleviate boredom or to focus his mind.

We recently showed the pincushion and postcard to children whose parents are serving in the Armed Forces today. Both objects will be displayed in the redeveloped galleries here at St Fagans, alongside contemporary responses generated through partnership work with the Armed Forces Community Covenant Grant Scheme. When asked to consider why Brinley may have made this pincushion for his mother, one young girl suggested it was his way of saying ‘I’m alive, don’t worry.’

Brinley Rhys Edmunds died on 5 September 1918 while serving with the Durham Light Infantry, a matter of weeks before the armistice and his twentieth birthday. He is buried at the Berlin South-Western Cemetery in Germany. With no grave to visit at home, his family preserved and displayed the pincushion under a glass dome. Like all families who lost a relative in the line of duty, Brinley’s parents received a bronze memorial plaque in recognition of his service, inscribed HE DIED FOR FREEDOM AND HONOUR BRINDLEY RYHS EDMUNDS – the error made by the Cardiff recruiting officer compounded by the misspelling of his middle name, Rhys.

Remember, you can now access the Museum's First World War collections online. We'd love to hear from you if you have further information about Brinley Edmunds, or any other person or family represented in the collections.

Worms that Dig

Postiwyd gan Katie Mortimer-Jones ar 24 Chwefror 2015

Our trip to collect shovelhead worms (a type of marine bristleworm called a magelonid) at Berwick-upon-Tweed started last Thursday (19th) at 06.30, giving us plenty of time on the shore before low tide. We were extremely lucky with the weather, as although it was only 7 degrees, the sun was out and it wasn’t raining. Staff at the museum specialize in this fascinating group and this particular trip was aimed at collecting animals to further our understanding of the biology of the group but also to gain specimens for the Museum’s natural history collections. Magelonids are extremely abundant on this shore and material used in the description of the British species, Magelona johnstoni was collected here by Head of Invertebrate Biodiversity Andy Mackie, who was one of the team who described the species back in 2000. The species was given its name in honour of the work carried out by the naturalist Dr George Johnston in this region.

Although, abundant on this shore, finding and collecting animals which are less than 1 mm in width can be tricky! These animals are rather long and fragile and a great deal of care has to be taken when collecting them. Animals are gently removed from the sand using a water bottle and soft forceps and placed into a cool box to keep them cool on the journey home. Once back to our makeshift laboratory I was able to identify and observe them for our research. We have designed a specialist tank in order to observe them over longer periods of time as well. We have successfully kept animals in this tank for nearly two years. We are hoping to observe the difference between three species, which can be found on this shore, Magelona johnstoni, Magelona mirabilis and Magelona filiformis. A fourth species is known to occur in low numbers on this shore, however, we were unable to locate any specimens for study this time.

We spent four days on the shore at Berwick-upon-Tweed collecting animals and although the weather did turn and temperatures on the beach dipped significantly it is a lovely shore to collect on. The tank and the animals have now made the long trip back to Cardiff and are now in the marine laboratory at National Museum Cardiff. We will continue to observe and publish research on these fascinating and also beautiful creatures (although may be I am somewhat biased, I shall leave it up to you whether you agree or not!).

Watch this video, to see how we sample shovelhead worms.

Northumberland’s Sea Life

Postiwyd gan Katie Mortimer-Jones ar 24 Chwefror 2015

The Marine Section at National Museum Cardiff have studied the shores around Berwick-upon-Tweed for several years now, concentrating on the marine bristleworms living in the muddy sand and the rocky outcrops of this beautiful beach. This is an historic beach for these fascinating creatures as several species were first described from this locality by Dr George Johnston (1797 – 1855), a Scottish physician and naturalist who studied the fauna and flora of the area. One of the most abundant types of bristleworms found there are shovelhead worms, beautiful creatures that use their flattened heads to dig in the sand and feed using two long feeding tentacles. Staff at the museum specialize in this group and hence Berwick-upon-Tweed is an important site for their research. Hence, I “set sail” to the shores of Northumberland again to collect more samples both for our research and the museum’s natural history collections. One of our current focuses is to understand how these animals feed, breed, burrow and behave and our latest findings have recently been published in the proceedings of the 11th International Polychaete Conference.

On this trip, I was joined by fellow science curator Kath Slade from the Botany section, who specializes in seaweeds. This allows us to look more holistically at the shore’s ecology, by looking at both the flora and fauna.

We will keep you posted with updates about what we have discovered.

The Contents of Fragile?

Postiwyd gan Penelope Hines ar 24 Chwefror 2015

Fragile? the major new ceramics exhibition in the west wing will contain a mix of pieces from our own collection, loans and site specific installations. Each ‘source’ (for want of a better word) of objects will bring different delights and challenges to the installation and display.

The loans we have coming from artists and other institutions have never been on display at National Museum Cardiff before. This gives us the opportunity to tell the story of objects and artists who visitors may be unfamiliar with or would not have the opportunity to discover otherwise. 

However it means we are presented with display requirements that may be different to that which we are used to and the intimate familiarity that we have with the appearance and presence of objects from our own collections is lacking.

None of this should, of course, detract from how excited we are to show these works and the fact that these challenges are ones taken on with alacrity.

The installations are thrilling due to their uniqueness and (in the case of the three in Fragile?) the extent to which visitors will be able to interact with them. However they present the element of the unknown.

Until they are completed the specific details of their appearance is unknown and though we can look to past audiences of galleries and museums who have displayed these artists work before we cannot know how visitors will engage with the installations.

When working with pieces already in the collection there is the bonus of the afore mentioned familiarity with the objects; their shape, size, handling requirements. But also a good understanding of how they work within different spaces or their “presence” as I called it earlier.

The inclusion of works from the collection is an opportunity to show pieces visitors may already be familiar with in new ways. Hopefully allowing the formation of new ideas and insights.

Works from the collection will be displayed with pieces which they are not normally displayed alongside and some will be displayed in a different manner, such as on open display rather than cased or viewable from all angles rather than against a wall.

We have a number of works coming out of the balcony cases on the first floor of the museum. Those who are familiar with the applied art collection of the museum and its permanent displays may know that these cases are arranged thematically; including cases of “Studio Ceramics”, “Craft and Design inspired by History” and “Craft from 1900 to present”.

For Fragile? pieces from these cases will be taken out of these displays and put into new groups to form new narratives. For example James Tower’s Pod Form, will leave “Craft from 1900 to present” and instead go into a dialogue of objects which examines how artists have applied colour to the base ceramic body.

Another example is Claire Curneen’s In the Tradition of Smiling Angels which usually sits in our "Contemporary Acquisitions" balcony case. In the exhibition it will be surrounded by other artists who have approached figurative representation through the ceramic medium. Though it could be argued that this work could also sit comfortably in all manner of dialogues; artist who mix materials, artists who use hand building as their technique and religious iconography this is the primary dialogue it sits in for this exhibition.

Putting object into new narratives, whether to do with ideas of form or decoration, we hope will be interesting and thought provoking  to new and regular visitors alike.

As some objects to be included in Fragile? are coming from display in the museum other objects have to come in and replace them in the permanent display cases. Therefore it gives another opportunity to get works out of stores and on display for everyone to enjoy. This too though a good opportunity, presents challenges. We have to get pieces which both fit into existing case narrative but also those which will practically fit the dimensions of the spaces which objects being used in Fragile? are moving out of.

Fragile? opens on the 18th April, in the meantime why not come and see the works which have replaced the works going into the exhibition on display? Come and see if you can spot the new pieces!  

View this exhibition in our “What’s On” Guide

Are there any themes or processes to do with Fragile? or the Applied Art Collection that you are particularly interested in? Leave any suggestions for future blog posts in the comments.

histoire jardin St Fagans

Postiwyd gan Nicolas Reynes ar 23 Chwefror 2015

Les jardins du château de St Fagans montrent à quoi pouvaient ressembler la propriété du conte de Plymouth et sa famille à la fin du XIXe siècle et début du XXe siècle.

Ces jardins sont bordés par un parc paysagé arboré qui nous mène vers 4 étangs en cascade surplombés par des terrasses formelles finies en 1871 et pensées par le paysagiste James Pulham.

S’en suis de magnifique parterre qui nous mène vers différents jardins comme le Dutch Garden entourant une fontaine, la roserais recréé comme elle avait été pensé en 1899 ou encore l’Italien Garden qui a été restauré il y pas longtemps grâce à des récits et photos d’époque pour retrouvé sa beauté d'antan.

Ces jardins regorge de secret historique comme les serres construite en 1899 et, de très belles variété de plante et de vieux sujet comme un hêtre planté en 1872.

Alors n’hésitez pas au cour de votre visite de questionner les jardiniers présent qui s’occupe avec passion de ces jardins.

A Year at St Fagans Gardens

Postiwyd gan Sally Anne Lickley ar 23 Chwefror 2015

A Year at St Fagans Gardens.

Ever wondered what gardener’s do at winter?

Hello and sut mae. This is my first blog entry and it’s my story about being a trainee gardener and Welsh learner at St Fagans Museum over the course of 14 months. I’d better start by telling you a bit about myself. I arrived on the Heritage Horticulture Skills Scheme (HHSS) last September and I’ll be blogging about what I get up to until I finish the course in November.

Before I became involved in the scheme I was a self-employed ‘maintenance’ gardener for several years in Cardiff. My technical knowledge was limited and I was really looking to learn new skills through practical experience. I also wanted to expand my knowledge of plants and horticulture techniques. In the past I’d tried doing this through books and YouTube videos, but I soon realised that what I really needed was some kind of gardening guru to guide me. When I heard about the HHSS scheme I got very excited and knew it would be perfect for me as it was an opportunity to learn a huge amount in a practical hands-on way, with guidance from experts in the field.

So, here we are in mid-Feb and I can’t believe I’ve been on the scheme for just over 5 months already. It’s been incredibly busy and I haven’t had much time to stop and think. The months have flown by. In this post I’ll be talking about what I and the other trainees have been doing over winter. Lots of people think that winter is a quiet time without much going on in the garden. A time to tidy up the shed, clean your tools, and think about your summer planting scheme. Don’t believe that for a second. Trust me, there’s plenty to do!

During the winter months the daylight hours are shorter and weather conditions can be harsh at times, but in a place like St Fagans the gardens are so varied there’s always a job that you can get on with. There are lots of plants that benefit from pruning at this time of year including fruit trees and bushes, late flowering shrubs, roses and some climbers. In the past few weeks we’ve tackled a few of these, and used different techniques to suit the individual needs of the plants.

Why prune at this time of year?

In winter, deciduous plants shed their leaves and that makes it much easier to see its general structure. There is also less chance of transmitting diseases from one plant to another or attracting insects to fresh pruning wounds. Sap producing plants will bleed heavily if you prune when the sap is rising. Many of these are dormant over winter and bleeding is not so much of a problem if you prune at this time of year. As you may have already gathered, this post is going to focus on winter pruning techniques.

The first thing to remember when pruning any plant is the 4 D’s. Always remove Dead, Diseased and Damaged or Displaced material, in that order!

There are 4 main types of pruning.

·         Formative pruning encourages growth and builds the basic framework in a young plant.

·         Maintenance pruning improves the look of the plant as well as increasing the amount of fruit or flowers.

·         Regenerative pruning – If you have a plant that’s been left to itself and grown out of control for a few years, there’s no need to panic. Certain plants can be restored. This type of pruning can help you manage the growth, size and the overall look. It’s often an intimidating prospect. But, if you have an idea about what you’re doing and you feel brave, it can give your old plants a new lease of life. And save you throwing them out, when all they need is a good prune.

·         Specialised pruning creates and maintains an attractive look. If you’ve always wanted a hedge in the shape of an elephant, then Topiary is a form of specialised pruning that might be right up your street.

Now that you know the basic rules, I’ll talk a little bit more in depth about what we’ve been doing recently.

Pollarding Lime (Tilia) trees

It’s best to Pollard Lime trees annually in late winter or early spring if you want to restrict height. Prune the new shoots back to a bud, 1-2cm from the pollarded head. This will also stimulate new shoot production for the following spring.

Wisteria

Wisteria can grow 10-12ft in a season, it’s a beast, and benefits from pruning twice annually in summer and winter. At this time of year we prune the lateral growth back to 2 or 3 buds on each spur shoot. These spurs will bear the following season’s majestic display of flowers.

Standard Apple Trees

Apple trees are pruned to manage fruit buds and the shoots they grow on. Not, as many people think, to control the size of the tree. Start by concentrating on one main branch at a time. Find the leader and work your way down to the main trunk. Cut the leader by a third, leaving a bud facing the direction you want the new growth to follow. Prune back any laterals to 2-3 buds. Thin out large groups of spurs because too many will produce small fruits and it’s much better to have less quantity, but bigger and better quality.

Hard Pruning Yew (Taxus baccata) Hedges

We decided to prune back hard the Yew hedges down by the ponds because they had grown too wide, and in places the height was obscuring the pretty spectacular view. Yew responds well to renovation pruning, but it’s best carried out staggered over a few years. This year we concentrated on one side and the top. We used string lines tied to bamboo canes to mark out a straight cutting guide. We cut back hard using loppers and secateurs to reduce the height and width, and to re-shape where needed. After hard pruning it’s always good idea to apply feed and mulch at the base to give the plant a bit of extra nutrition and TLC while it recovers.

Rose Pruning

A few of the other HHSS trainees from other gardens on the scheme joined us just last week for a Rose pruning workshop led by St Fagans gardener Julie. Our task was to give the Roses a light annual prune. Different Roses respond better to different styles of pruning. We were each given a specific Rose bed, a map, and a list of the Roses with their pruning preferences. I was working with ‘Gruss an Teplitz’, which are a beautiful and fragrant old Hybrid Tea which prefer to be pruned thin. The first move was to remove any dead, diseased and damaged or displaced material. The 4 D’s! Next I thinned out the centre to produce a well-balanced open shape, and removed any crossing stems to stop them from rubbing against and damaging each other. I removed some of the very old, less productive wood to encourage new growth from the base. Always remember to prune to just above an outward facing bud, and make sure the cut slopes away from this to shed water.

@DyddiadurKate – Ffliw ffyrnig 1915

Postiwyd gan Elen Phillips ar 20 Chwefror 2015

Gwrthrych o gasgliad meddygol yr Amgueddfa. Cist yn cynnwys moddion ac offer meddygol, dechrau'r 1800au.

Nodiadau Phryswith Matthews ar fwydo cleifion, 6 Ionawr 1914.

Phrysiwth Matthews yng ngwisg y Groes Goch yn ystod y Rhyfel Mawr. Bu'n gweithio fel nyrs yn Ysbyty VAD y Groes Goch, Sain Ffagan.

I nifer fawr o bobl, bydd gaeaf 2014-5 yn cael ei gofio fel gaeaf y lempsip max strength. Mae bron pawb dw i’n ’nabod wedi bod yn diodde’ eleni – anwyd trwm, cur pen a pheswch sy’n anodd i’w waredu. O ddarllen cofnodion diweddar @DyddiadurKate, mae’n ymddangos mai sefyllfa go debyg oedd yma yng Nghymru canrif yn ôl. Yn Chwefror 1915, roedd nifer o deulu a chymdogion Kate yn y Sarnau a Chefnddwysarn, gan gynnwys ei thad Ellis, yn ‘clwyfo o’r influenza.’ Dyma ddetholiad o’r cofnodion:

5 Chwefror - Diwrnod braf iawn. Myfi yn dod adref. Mr E. H. Evans yn darlithio yng nghyfarfod Cymdeithas Ddirwestol. Tywydd mawr iawn min nos. Ellis yn cwyno "influenza".

8 Chwefror - Tomi yn mynd a hwch dew ir Bala. Myfi yn mynd iw phwyso. Tomi yn dod a llwyth o galch adref. Myfi yn dechreu clwyfo or influenza. Ellis ychydig yn well. Codi i nol "orange" yn y nos.

9 Chwefror - Ellis heb fod gystal. Richard yma yn "bailiff". Minnau yn reid ddrwg. Wedi cysgu.

19 Chwefror - Halltu yn y boreu. Johnny Llawr Cwm yn galw yma. Richard yma yn helpu malu gwellt. Mammam yn dod yma ar ol tê. Jane Pantymarch a finnau yn mynd ir Byrgoed min nos. Mrs Williams Derwgoed yn cwyno yn bur arw (influenza).

Er gwaetha’ sgil effeithiau’r haint, mae’n amlwg nad oedd Kate a’i chyfoedion yn swatio yn eu gwaeledd. Mewn cymuned amaethyddol fel hon, roedd bywyd bob dydd yn mynd yn ei flaen fel arfer, ffliw neu beidio. Ond mae’n amlwg o ddarllen papurau newydd y cyfnod bod ffliw 1915 yn anarferol o ffyrnig. Dyma nodyn a gyhoeddwyd yn Y Cymro ar 17 Chwefror 1915:

Salwch –  Fu erioed y fath salwch a sy’n ymdoi Penllyn yn awr. Y mae yn ffeindio cryd ymhob ty. Influenza, dyna’r enw medda nhw.

Mae ffigyrau marwolaeth y cyfnod yn ategu tôn brawychol Y Cymro. Roedd y nifer a fu farw o’r ffliw ym Mhrydain yn 1915 bron ddwywaith gymaint â’r flwyddyn flaenorol:

1914 – 5,964

1915 – 10,484

1916 – 8,791

1917 – 7,289*

Wrth gwrs, roedd gwaeth i ddod gyda’r pandemig yn 1918-9. Bu farw 112,329 o bobl ym Mhrydain o’r ffliw yn 1918 a 40 miliwn yn rhyngwladol – mwy na’r cyfanswm cyfan a fu farw ar faes y gad yn ystod y Rhyfel Mawr.

Mae’r casgliadau yma yn Sain Ffagan yn cynnwys nifer o wrthrychau ac archifau sy’n gysylltiedig â meddyginiaeth ac ymadfer. Gallwch weld rhai ohonynt ar dudalen Trydar @SF_Ystafelloedd (Mared McAleavey – Prif Guradur Ystafelloedd Hanesyddol). Un o fy hoff ddarganfyddiadau diweddar yw’r llyfryn a welir fan hyn a oedd yn eiddo i Phryswith Matthews – merch saer olwynion pentre Sain Ffagan. Mae’r llyfryn yn llawn ryseitiau, gan gynnwys prydau bwyd addas i gleifion. Bu Phryswith mewn darlith ar ‘invalid cookery’ ar 6 Ionawr 1914 – mae’i nodiadau o’r ddarlith honno yn y llyfryn. Yn ystod y Rhyfel Mawr, roedd hi’n gweithio fel nyrs VAD yn Ysbyty’r Groes Goch ar dir Castell Sain Ffagan. Gallwch weld rhagor o wrthrychau a lluniau sy’n gysylltiedig â stori'r ysbyty ar ein gwefan.

 *Ystadegau: The Lancet, rhifyn 2, Chwefror 2002, tt. 111-3.

Valentines Day for Peregrines

Postiwyd gan Barbara Mireille Brown ar 18 Chwefror 2015

It was Valentine's Day for Peregrines too

Valentine’s Day is traditionally the day when birds start to pair up and our Clock Tower Peregrines seem to be no exception.

Thursday the 12th of February saw Mrs Peregrine (the bigger of the two birds) clearing out a possible nest site very high up on the tower. Although we could only see her back and tail feathers, it was clear she was busy, as leafs and small twigs were spirally down behind her, occasionally hitting Mr Peregrine who was perched nearby, maybe overseeing operations.

Friday the 13th saw more action as Mr P left the Tower in a swift hunting flight mid-afternoon. He was soon back with a Valentine’s Day meal of Pigeon for the female. Offering dinner to your partner works for Peregrines as well as humans!  She didn’t wait for Saturday the 14th though and after a plucking the prey in a shower of feathers, tucked into her meal without any courtship ceremony.

They are often on the tower together now, and I think it won’t be long before they make their choice of nest site and start carrying a few new sticks in to build it up.

Barbara Brown

Opal Community Scientist

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